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Introduction

This unit will help you understand the general issues of children's rights as well as exploring childhood and children's needs. It is also possible to link these ideas to the wider issue of the social construction of difference and power. The materials are primarily an audio file, originally 28 minutes in length and recorded in 1998.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Social policy: welfare, power and diversity (D218) which is no longer taught by The
Author(s): The Open University

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Adobe Connect: Jumpstart for participants
Learn about key interface changes, including the new App Bar and new features in the Attendees and Chat pods.
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3.4 Penetration depth

The characteristic length, λ, associated with the decay of the magnetic field at the surface of a superconductor is known as the penetration depth, and it depends on the number density ns of superconducting electrons.

We can estimate a value for λ by assuming that all of the free electrons are superconducting. If we set ns = 1029 m−3, a typical free electron density in a metal, then we find that


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1.8.2 Interpretation of a geological exposure

We now want to make use of the observations obtained by sketching the exposure, and it is useful to start by briefly summarising the features seen. First of all, you probably noticed the large boulder in the foreground of Figure 16 (which has been attached below for ease of access). Where did this boul
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Introduction

This unit explores origins of the Universe by looking in detail at events immediately following the Big Bang. Starting with looking at the cooling of the very early Universe, the unit then moves on to the inflation era, the quark-lepton and the hadron era. Then the unit looks at how fundamental particles began to synthesise to form nuclei, and from here it discusses the development of larger structures like stars and galaxies. By examining closely the forces in play and the interactions of fu
Author(s): The Open University

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3 Where do earthquakes occur?

How deep in the Earth do earthquakes occur? Most earthquake foci are within a few tens of kilometres of the surface. Earthquakes less than 70 km deep are classified as shallow-focus. Earthquakes with foci 70–300 km deep are classified as intermediate-focus and those below 300 km are deep-focus (Figure 7). Shallow-focus
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8 Magistrates

Magistrates have been a part of the English legal system since the Justice of the Peace Act 1361. Their main role has always been in the criminal justice system. There are now over 30,000 magistrates (also known as Justices of the Peace) hearing over one million criminal cases per yea
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3.3.3 Committee stage

At this stage a detailed examination of each clause of the Bill is undertaken by a committee of between 16 and 50 MPs. The committee subjects the Bill to line-by-line examination and makes amendments. The committee which carries out these discussions comprises MPs representing the different political parties roughly in proportion to the overall composition of the House of Commons. There will therefore be a Government majority on the committee. However, an attempt is made to ensure representat
Author(s): The Open University

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4.2.2 Private reports (1535–1865)

These reports bear the name they do because they were produced by private individuals and are cited by the name of the person who collected them. They were, however, published commercially for public reference. An ongoing problem with the private reports relates to their accuracy. At best, it can be said that some were better, that is, more accurate, than others. Of particular importance among the earlier reports were those of Plowden, Coke and Burrows, but there are many other reports that a
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1.3.4: Calculating means using frequencies and calculating weighted means

In some situations, various values in the batch get repeated (there may be a limited number of different values that can occur, for example). It can be simpler to group the data and record the number of times with which each different value occurs. The number is called the frequency. The following example explores this possibility and comes up with an equivalent formula for calculating the mean of the batch.

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1.4 Converting ratios from fractions to decimals

Although ratios are often given as fractions, they can also be expressed as decimals. You need to deal with a mixture of fractions and decimals, and to compare ratios given in either form, so you need to be able to convert between the two forms.

Example 4

The ratio of the circumference of a cir
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1.3 Using ratios

Time conversions are also ratios. The ratio of time measured in minutes to time measured in seconds is one to sixty (1:60), as there are sixty seconds in a minute.

Example 2

Adam's grandfather ran a mile in Author(s): The Open University

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1.2.1 Try some yourself

1 A friend is painting the inside walls of a garage. So far she has used a 2 litre tin of emulsion paint and covered an area of 9 m2. She needs some more paint. How much more would you advise her to purchase if she intends to pa
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1.2 Expressing ratios

To make short crust pastry, one recipe book says ‘use one part of fat to two parts of flour’; another recipe says ‘use fat and flour in the ratio of one to two’; and yet another says ‘use half as much fat as flour’. These are different ways of expressing the same ratio. Ratios are often expressed as fractions. So in this case:

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2.3 Paper-and-glue constructions

In this section we show how to construct surfaces by taking a piece of paper in the shape of a polygon and gluing some of its edges together. The surfaces that we obtain occupy a central position in this unit, as you will see.


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Future Work
Kyle Xu

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Conclusion
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U.S. Day Ahead: Speaker Boehner to try and sell taxes to GOP
Dec 17 - Drawn-out fiscal cliff negotiations continue Tuesday morning when Boehner speaks with his Republican colleagues, to gauge their willingness to support higher taxes on top earners.
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Foreign funds cashing out after Southeast Asia's bull run
Dec. 18 - Pricey valuations in Southeast Asia are prompting foreign funds to search for value elsewhere, with money managers fixing their sights back on China. Lisa Yuriko Thomas reports.
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One Organization's Fight against Hunger -- and Why Victory Is So Elusive
Bill Clark's job only gets harder. As executive director of Philabundance, a Philadelphia area hunger relief organization, he has this to say about today's food crisis: "The hunger that used to exist in inner cities or rural areas like Appalachia has leapt beyond those pockets into the middle and working classes. I don't think there is a zip code in the country today that is totally devoid of hunger." Clark talks about the challenges Philabundance faces at a time when natural disasters, cutbacks
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