5.1 Molecular reactivity is concentrated at key sites
Reactivity is not spread evenly over a molecule; it tends to be concentrated at particular sites. The consequences of this idea are apparent in the chemistry of many elements. However, in organic chemistry, the idea has proved so valuable that it receives specific recognition through the concept of the functional group. Structure 6.1 shows the abbreviated structural formula of hexan1ol, an alcohol.

The chemical formulae of many substances can be understood by arguing that their atoms attain noble gas structures by chemical combination.

In ionic compounds, this is achieved by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another; in molecular substances, it happens through the sharing of electron pairs in covalent bonds. But in both cases, bonds between atoms consist of shared pairs of electrons. In covalent compounds the sharing is fairl
Gaseous oxygen occurs as O_{2} molecules. But ultraviolet light or an electric discharge converts some of the oxygen to ozone (Box 6). This has the molecular formula O_{3}.
Box 6: Ozone is blue
Many people know that gaseous ozone in the stratosphere protects us from harmful sola
4.5.2 Noble gas configurations under stress
It is remarkable how many molecules and ions of the typical elements can be represented by Lewis structures in which each atom has a noble gas shell structure. Nevertheless, many exceptions exist. According to the periodic trends summarised in Section 2, the highest fluorides of boron and phosphorus are BF_{3} and PF_{5}. How
4.5 More about covalent bonding
So far, the valencies in Table 1 have just been numbers that we use to predict the formulae of compounds. But in the case of covalent substances they can tell us more. In particular, they can tell us how the atoms are linked together in the molecule. This information is obtained from a twodimensional drawing of the structural form
All atoms of the same element have identical atomic numbers, and are chemically similar, but they may not be identical in other ways. Figure 2f shows copper. All copper atoms have atomic number 29: all their nuclei contain 29 protons. But they also contain uncharged particles called neutrons. In natural copper, the a
Brazil is undergoing what is considered its worst economic crisis in seventy years, and there is usually no agreement when it comes to the causes of this situation. President Rousseff and the Labor Party say that it was the corollary of the “International Crisis,” a ghost of the 2008 depression created in their minds. The reality, however, is different. Since expresident Lula Da Silva of the Labor Party entered office in 2003, the government has clung to the typical Keynesian pro
Some students contend with physical difficulties in reading. Here is one:
And here is another being offered advice by a friend:
Author(s):
Scientists collect many different types of information, but sets of data may be very loosely classified into two different types. In the first type, socalled â€˜repeated measurementâ€™, an individual quantity is measured a number of times. An astronomer wanting to determine the light output of a star would take many measurements on a number of different nights to even out the effects of the various possible fluctuations in the atmosphere that are a cause of stars â€˜twinklingâ€™. In the seco
The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.
All materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.
The main teaching text of this unit is provided in the workbook below. The answers to the exercises that you'll find throughout the workbook are given in the answer book. You can access it by clicking on the link under the workbook.
Click 'View document' to open the workbook (PDF, 0.2 MB).
The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.
Unit Image
Wade_In_Tulsa, photos
All other materials included in thi
The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.
All materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.
Exercise 29
In this exercise, take
4.3 Least Upper Bound Property
In the examples just given, it was straightforward to guess the values of sup E and inf E. Sometimes, however, this is not the case. For example, if then it can be shown that E is bounded above by 3, but it is not so easy to guess the least upper bound of E.
In such cases, it i
The set of natural numbers is
the set of integers is
and the set of rational numbers is
Author(s):
6.2 Getting the feel of big and small numbers
Very small and very large numbers can be difficult to comprehend. Nothing in our everyday experience helps us to get a good feel for them. For example numbers such as 10^{99} are so big that if Figure 1 was drawn to scale, you would be dealing with enormous distances. How big is big?
First express 1â€‰000â€‰000â€‰000 in scientific notation as 10^{9}. Next, to find out how many times bigger 10^{99} is, use your calculator to divide 10^{99} by 10^{9Author(s): The Open University}
This unit explores reasons for studying mathematics, practical applications of mathematical ideas and aims to help you to recognize mathematics when you come across it. It introduces the you to the graphics calculator, and takes you through a series of exercises from the Calculator Book, Tapping into Mathematics With the TI83 Graphics Calculator. The unit ends by asking you to reflect on the process of studying mathematics.
In order to complete this unit you will need
By the end of this unit you should be able to:
Section 1: Sets
use set notation;
determine whether two given sets are equal and whether one given set is a subset of another;
find the union, intersection and difference of two given sets.
Section 2: Functions
determine the image of a given function;
determine whether a given function is oneone
After studying this unit you should:
be able to perform basic algebraic manipulation with complex numbers;
understand the geometric interpretation of complex numbers;
know methods of finding the nth roots of complex numbers and the solutions of simple polynomial equations.