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4.5 Person specification

Once the job and organisational analyses and the job description have been completed (see Figure 1), the next stage is to write a specification of the kind of person needed to fill the job you have just described. It is important to be as precise as possible about the skills, knowledge, qualifications and at
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4.3 Organisational analysis

The broader organisational requirements can be as important as the specific ones for the job itself. The organisation needs creativity, flexibility, the ability to work in a small team, and so on, from the job holder. In line with the person-organisation fit described earlier, it is important to think beyond the technical aspects of the job to the cultural aspects of the organisation.


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4.2 Job analysis

Job analysis involves examining a job systematically and in detail. There is no single way of doing this. Direct observation may be helpful if you are analysing repetitive manual jobs, for example. Discussion with the current job holder and supervisor or line manager is also a useful source of information. Another method of job analysis is to use the checklist approach illustrated in Author(s): The Open University

3.3 Person–organisation fit

This approach stresses that people's behaviour and performance are strongly influenced by the environment in which they find themselves. So being successful in a job in one organisation does not necessarily imply success in a similar job in another. In assessing the suitability of a job applicant a manager should explore the reasons why a person has performed well in their existing job and consider whether similar conditions apply in the new job. Advocates of the person-organisation fit appro
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1 Overview

The unit begins by looking at how it can be difficult for a manager in the process of recruitment and selection to maintain objectivity. Drawing up clear criteria to use throughout recruitment and selection can help the process. It then addresses the difference between the person–job and person–organisation approaches to recruitment. Subsequent sections review the different tasks to be completed and the different methods which can be used by the manager in this important process.


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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • list the skills and knowledge needed to conduct full and fair recruitment and selection, and be able to undertake it systematically.


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3 Factors influencing culture

Where the culture of a business comes from, and how it develops, is the subject of much discussion within business studies. Every commentator seems to have their own list of key factors. One example is by Drennan (1992), who proposes twelve key factors that shape the culture of a business. These are:

  1. the influence of a dominant leader – the vision, management style and personality of the founder or leader in a business often has a significant influe
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References

de Mooj, M. (2003) ‘Convergence and divergence in consumer behaviour: implications for global advertising’, International Journal of Advertising, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 183–202.
Hofstede, G. (c. 2007a) ‘A summary of my ideas about organizational cultures’ Geert Hofstede's Homepage [online] http://feweb.uvt.nl.center/hofstede/page4.htm (accessed 15 December 2007).
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3.4 Communicating your request

There is a real tension between being both personal and impersonal at the same time, appealing to individuals as you appeal to thousands. The widespread aversion to junk mail, telephone selling and email spamming means you have only a brief moment to capture the interest and attention of your audience. This poses a dilemma: how to persuade your audience that your case warrants this attention without the dangers associated with using shock tactics, being too slick or gimmicky. Through careful
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3.1 Introduction

This section applies the framework of the process approach outlined in Section 2 to asking for resources and support from large numbers of people. How can you create opportunities to give that will turn many prospects, not just one particular individual, into donors and supporters?


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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should:

  • appraise your own skills in asking for contributions;

  • identify ways of sustaining and developing donor involvement;

  • make recommendations on how your organisation might most appropriately acknowledge contributions;

  • contribute to thinking on the actual or potential role of ‘big gifts’ in your organisation's approach to fundraising;

  • enhance your approach to legacy fundraising.


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5 Summary

In this unit we have focused on effective management of the routine activities of a project. I began by considering what a manager can do to ensure that tasks and activities start on time. You should now be able to take the steps that are required to implement a project. Appropriate people need to be appointed to teams and to be clear about individual and group responsibilities. The accommodation and equipment must be secured, together with ensuring that the necessary resources are in place t
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Introduction

This Unit is designed to provide you with a basic framework for understanding operations management and its organisational and managerial context. It begins with a brief history of the changing nature of operations in a manufacturing context, but emphasises that the operations function is significant in all types of organisation, whether they produce goods or provide services, and whether they are in the private, public or voluntary sectors.

This Unit presents a process model of operati
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2.7.1 Drawing a multiple-cause diagram

We can draw a multiple-cause diagram to explore and to communicate the complexity of a system, and to recognise that the effect of a particular system is normally the result of a number of different causes.

Examine the example shown in Figure 17 of the multi
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2.7 Multiple-cause diagrams

As a general rule, an event or outcome will have more than one cause. A multiple-cause diagram will enable you to show the causes and the ways in which they are connected. Suppose, for example, that you were asked to explain why a work group was under-performing. You could use a multiple-cause diagram both to help you to construct the explanation and to present it.

2.4.2 A systems map

Mapping a system is like mapping a town. First we define the boundary and draw it on paper. The boundary separates those places inside the town from those outside. We do the same with the system. We show the system boundary with rounded corners to emphasise the imprecise nature of the boundary that separates those things that are interacting inside the system from those outside in the environment that have an effect on it.

We become selective when we draw a map. We consider the purpose
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2.1.2 How a force-field diagram can help

  1. The diagram is a useful expositional or presentational device. When you are presenting an analysis or proposal, the diagram will enable you to describe (and distinguish between) the reasons for a change. It will enable you to do the same for the reasons why a change may be resisted.

  2. The diagram will be an explicit prompt for exploring the restraining forces. The more a manager finds out about these, and the earlier, the better placed the manag
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Introduction

The default learning path in this unit takes a problem-based approach to learning about project management. You work through a realistically complex and messy example of project management and engage in a series of tasks associated with the case-study materials. At each stage of the case study you have access to project management resources which describe useful approaches to project management and introduce useful frameworks and tools. However, these are provided as an aid to your learning n
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7.6 Who should estimate?

The person managing the project is not necessarily the best one to prepare the estimates, although they should be closely involved, both as a source of information and because they need a clear understanding of what the estimates mean and what the estimators assume about outputs, inputs and the transformation process. If there are others who have more experience or more knowledge about some of the areas of work, these people may be the best ones to make estimates for the project or parts of i
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2.2 The classic six-stage project management model

This model also consists of stages, but, unlike the sequential flow of the project life-cycle, the six-stage model assumes that some stages are carried out simultaneously. In particular, the model (Figure 3) assumes that communications will take place throughout the project. It also assumes that team building, leading and motivatio
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