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1.2 Disentangling sounds

If you are still feeling aggrieved about the shortcomings of evolution, then you might take heart from the remarkable way in which the auditory system has evolved so as to avoid a serious potential problem. Unlike our eyes, our ears cannot be directed so as to avoid registering material that we wish to ignore; whatever sounds are present in the environment, we must inevitably be exposed to them. In a busy setting such as a party we are swamped by simultaneous sounds – people in different pa
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3.6 Reflecting on dyslexia

Throughout this unit, dyslexia has been evaluated as an example of ‘abnormality’, a difficulty, a problem in need of an intervention. However, research has shown that some adults with dyslexia are distinctive, not just in their difficulties, but also in their increased levels of creative reasoning compared to ‘normal’ people (Everatt 1997). West (1997) reports that Nicholas Negroponte, the founding member of the Media Lab at the world renowned Massachusetts Institute of Technology<
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2.3 Biological explanations of dyslexia

Some physical characteristics appear to be ‘typical’ of people with reading difficulties, although their relevance is debated. These include being male, tendencies towards left-handedness or mixed-handedness (i.e. inconsistency of hand preference across different tasks), and a variety of neurological 'soft’ signs and minor physical anomalies. We will consider each of these in detail in the sections that follow. There is also some evidence that people with dyslexia (and the
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2.2.3 ‘Automaticity’ and ‘rate of processing’ hypotheses

A proposal that attempts to address the broader picture of dyslexic functioning is that dyslexia may be caused by problems in the automatisation of skills. The concept of automatisation refers to the gradual reduction in the need for conscious control as a new skill is learned. This leads to greater speed and efficiency and a decreased likelihood of breakdown of performance under stress, as well as the ability to perform a second task at the same time with minimal disruption to
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1.7.3 Differentiating dyslexia from other developmental conditions

While dyslexia is distinctive, there are other developmental syndromes that often co-occur with it. Examples include:

  • developmental dysphasia – specific difficulties with spoken language

  • attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder – involving particular problems with concentration and/or behaviour

  • developmental dyspraxia – developmental coordination disorder.

Developmental dysphasia


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1.4 Experiencing dyslexia

To illustrate just how problematic the idea of ‘abnormality’ is in practice, we will consider the condition of developmental dyslexia, dyslexia for short. Dyslexia is relatively common and you may have knowledge of it from friends or personal experience. The following section illustrates many of the difficulties experienced by people with dyslexia, and it also highlights more generally some of the problems that can occur if you are not, in some sense, ‘normal’.


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1.2.2 Medical approaches to normality

What did you write for ‘normal’ eyesight? The ability to see clearly without glasses? It is unlikely that you wrote down short- or long-sightedness as an example of ‘normal’ eyesight, even though they are very common. However, they are not seen as ‘normal’ because having to wear glasses is perceived as a limitation or even a form of disability. This relates to one of several so-called ‘medical models’ of normality, which centre on the idea of uniformity of physical and psychol
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Module team

Open University staff

Dr Dorothy Miell, Senior Lecturer in Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences (Course Team Chair)

Dr Paul Anand, Lecturer in Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences

Peter Barnes, Lecturer in Centre for Childhood, Development and Learning, Faculty of Education and Language Studies

Pam Berry, Key Compositor

Dr Nicola Brace, Lecturer in Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences

Dr Nick Braisby, Lectur
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7 Independent T-Tests

Activity 6

0 hours 20 minutes

This activity introduces the independent t-test – a powerful test to use when you are comparing two groups or conditions. There are two variants of the t-test:


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3 Using the Menu

Activity 2

0 hours 20 minutes

This activity follows the previous one by opening with a window showing the Trends 14 data file. You are encouraged to explore the menus by using the SPSS software. E
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1 Members of the governing body

Governors will have many demands upon their time and they must be sure that the time which they are devoting to school business is used wisely.

Creese (1995)

Governors are usually busy people with a genuine commitment to the school, but with limited time available. The governing body therefore needs to know, and use, the strengths of its individual members.

The 2002 Education Act has brou
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5.6.4 Educational software/learning application

Barstow, C. andRothberg, M. (2002) IMS Guidelines for Developing Accessible Learning Applications

Hardware

IBM, ‘Hardware accessibility’ checklist.


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4.6.1 What if a learning objective CAN'T be achieved?

What can you do if you have considered all the adjustments appropriate for a particular student and you have determined that they can't achieve the learning objective?


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4.5.2 Don't – compromise academic standards

If you make adjustments in examinations and assessments, you must still be satisfied that a student is being assessed against the same learning objectives as other students.


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3.12 Activity task 6: solutions to challenging activities

Return to your list of the challenging activities, which you updated in ‘Discussing disability’.

Add notes on possible solutions to as many of the challenges as you can.

You might like to share your ideas in the Comments section below and discuss the similarities and differences.


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3.3.1 Colour-blindness

People who are colour-blind cannot distinguish between certain ranges of colour. The most common form is red-green colour-blindness. People with red-green colourblindness do not see these colours in the same way as most people do, and cannot distinguish between them. Approximately 1 in 10 men and 1 in 200 women are affected by red-green colour-blindness. Colour-blindness is either inherited or is caused by an underlying eye condition, such as macular degeneration (BBC, 2005, ‘Men's health
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1.4 Activity task 1: list of challenging activities

Drawing on your own experience and your study of this unit so far, write a list of activities that might be expected of a student on a course that has online and distance components.

Which of the activities on your list do you think might be challenging for disabled students?

Are there any activities in your list that might be easier for disabled students to do online rather than by traditional methods?

Save your list of the challenging activities so that you can add to it a
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References

Armstrong, N., & Welsman, J. (1997) Young people and physical activity, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Department for Education and Employment & Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (1999) The National Curriculum for Physical Education, London, QCA.
Department of Health (2004) Chief Medical Officer, At least five a week: Evidence on the impact of physical
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Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes for this unit are:

  • To be aware of fact and fiction with regard to relationships between young people's health, activity and fitness.

  • To consider how the physical education curriculum can contribute to public health through the design and implementation of practices which promote active, healthy lifestyles.

  • To learn about current strategies for increasing young people's participation in physical activities.


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