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3.1 Introduction

In this section we look at the way in which the personal lives of older people have been socially constructed through pensions policies over the last century. As we saw above, welfare policies and changes in employment in the latter part of the nineteenth century and early part of the twentieth century constructed the personal lives of older people as ‘other’ to the emergent normal of relatively younger, ‘independent’ paid workers. Here, we explore the way pensions policies during the
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References

Anderson, D. (1991) The Unmentionable Face of Poverty in the Nineties: Domestic Incompetence, Improvidence and Male Irresponsibility in Low Income Families, London, Social Affairs Unit.
Barash, P. (1981) Sociobiology: The Whisperings Within, London, Fontana.
Berger, P. and Luckmann, T. (1967) The Social Construction of Reality, London, Allen Lane.

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7.3 Summary

The idea of discourse alerts us to a number of issues about the social construction of social problems. It suggests that we need to look beyond competing theories or perspectives to look at how knowledge is organised around central themes that allow the different theories to compete. Discourses define what the problem is, and it is because theories share the definition of the problem that they can compete and argue. Perspectives that start somewhere else – or do not share the definition of
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5.2 From social construction to social constructionism

The notion of social construction, we have argued, is fundamental to a social science approach to the analysis of social problems. However, some authors have developed the notion further into a more focused perspective, which may be called social constructionism. This perspective starts by emphasising one essential feature of human societies – the role of language. In human societies, action is preceded by understanding and intention. We intend our actions to have meaningful outcomes
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2.2 Summary

Social scientists need to stand back, to view common sense or ‘what everybody knows’ from the perspective of a stranger. Common sense about social problems such as poverty involves a process of social construction, drawing on a repository or storeroom of underlying theories and assumptions. Common sense has been built up over time, carrying with it traces of earlier understandings which are also brought into discussions of new issues and debates. Common sense is itself divided, reflecting
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1.2 From private trouble to public issue: the emergence of negative equity

In the housing market, owner-occupiers have occasionally sold their property at a price below that which they paid for it. In the early 1990s, large numbers of property owners in the UK (and particularly in south-east England) found that the market value of their houses and flats had fallen below the original purchase price. A private trouble emerged as a public issue. It was named, and became the problem of ‘negative equity’. This was identified as a widespread problem rather than a matt
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Introduction

Anti-social behaviour, homelessness, drugs, metal illness: all problems in today’s society. But what makes a problem social? This unit will help you to discover how these issues are identified, defined, given meaning and acted upon. You will also look at the conflicts within social science in this area.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Social Policy: Welfare, Power and Diversity (D218) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want
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Introduction

This course examines the type of system which is described by the umbrella term ‘e-commerce’. A number of typical application areas are examined including retailing using the internet, supply chain management and online auctions. The course also looks at some of the underlying technologies used to implement e-commerce applications, for example web technology. The final part of the course looks at some of the problems which are encountered when developing distributed e-commerce systems, fo
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Introduction

People have always communicated with each other – initially by face-to-face communication through gestures and sounds, then over a distance through written messages and signals in the form of fires, lights or flags. Technology, for instance in the form of electrical signals, has reduced many of the limitations of distance. Communication networks have become very important, and modern society depends on them for the smooth operation of economic and social activities. In this unit we regard a
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2.7 How to reference sources

You have seen how easy it is to find what what you want on the Web. When you quote any information or use any images that you have not written or created yourself it is important to ensure that you reference the source of the quote or image. This is to show that you are not trying to pass off someone else's work as your own, and to enable your reader, should they wish, to access the source of that quote.

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2.5 Bookmarking websites

Most browsers allow you to keep a record of links to websites that you have found useful. These are called ‘Bookmarks’ in Firefox and ‘Favorites’ in Internet Explorer, and may have other names, such as a ‘Hot List’, in other browsers. For convenience I've chosen to call them bookmarks. Browsers usually offer the facility for organising the bookmarks into folders and sub-folders so that you can keep track of them as your collection grows.

You may well have a collection of boo
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2.1 Introduction

In this section we will cover the following topics:

  • browsing for information on the Web;

  • searching for information on the Web;

  • using search engines;

  • bookmarking websites;

  • finding images on the Web;

  • how to reference sources.

Some of the material in this section has been drawn from Safari, an interactive website provided by the Open University Library.
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2.3 ICTs and you

Sometimes it's useful to stop and think a bit about your own experiences and focus on your own views. This can help you understand issues in more depth. For example, when studying the impact of ICTs on everyday life, your own experiences are a useful resource.

Activity 4

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References

Michael Jackson, Software Requirements & Specifications, Addison-Wesley, 1995. ISBN 0–201–87712–0.
Suzanne Robertson and James Robertson, Mastering the Requirements Process, Addison-Wesley, second edition, 2006. ISBN 0–321–41949–9

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1 Members of the governing body

Governors will have many demands upon their time and they must be sure that the time which they are devoting to school business is used wisely.

Creese (1995)

Governors are usually busy people with a genuine commitment to the school, but with limited time available. The governing body therefore needs to know, and use, the strengths of its individual members.

The 2002 Education Act has brou
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Acknowledgements

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Author details

Sue Platt has been a school governor for 21 years, at both primary and sec
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6 Conclusion

This unit has highlighted some of the fundamental aspects of dance skills, and given you ideas as to what to include and possible approaches to developing such skills in class. It has also looked at the development of performance skills and the use of feedback. You might like to use the Unit Forum to discuss and debate any dance-related issues, share ideas or ask questions.

Further reading

Dance UK, ‘Warming Up and Cooling Down’, Information Sheet 3, Articles by Carol
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Brown vs Board of Education Thurgood Marshall
This ten minute video is about Brown vs. Board of Education and Thurgood Marshall. It is mainly talking heads and so is best used for older students who have some idea about the judical system. It covers a lot of history related to civil rights.
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4.9 Léxico básico

banco (el) bank (also: bench)
bar (el) bar (establishment)
cibercafé (el) cyber café, internet café
cine (el) cinema
Correos post office
hipermercado (el) hypermarket
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References

Extract 1
Baxter, C., Poonia, K., Ward, L. and Nadirshaw, Z. (1990) Double Discrimination: Issues and Services for People with Learning Difficulties from Black and Minority Ethnic Communities, London, King’s Fund Centre.
Bentall, R.P. (1992) ‘A proposal to classify happiness as a psychiatric disorder’, Journal of Medical Ethics, Vol. 18, pp. 94
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