2.3 The Industrial Revolution and its environmental impacts

The environmental issues you have identified in your answer to the first exercise are likely to be complex and difficult to unravel, yet alone resolve. Rather than attempt that at this stage I'd like to start this section with another question. Where does our material prosperity come from? To which one short answer would be ‘The Industrial Revolution’. In the space of less than 100 years between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, first Britain, then several other count
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5.8 Review of criticisms of international rights

Activity 1

Review the four criticisms of rights at the international level discussed in the previous sections.

  1. Identify which of these criticisms are objections in principle to the discourse of
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • understand the different interpretations of internationally recognised notions of rights and justice;

  • give examples of implementing justice in an international sphere;

  • investigate questions in international studies;

  • analyse the different agencies of change in the international system.


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2.4 Worlds in motion: the importance of flows

‘The sea had welled up suddenly through thousands of tiny holes in this atoll's bedrock of coral.’ Do you recall this passage in Lynas's (2003) account of his first days on Tuvalu in Reading 1A? For me, this gives an impression of the islands being quite literally porous, a solid ground that reveals itself, now and again, to be not so solid after all. Lynas offers this particularly striking example of the island's openness to the world around it as evidence of a growing vulnerability that
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1.2 Readings

In considering the environmental and social challenges that we are currently facing, we are clearly dealing with so-called ‘wicked’ problems: the ‘problems’ manifest themselves only as you try to engage and change society and the Author(s): The Open University

1.3.6 Diagrams for diagnosis

As the detail of the connectivity revealed through a diagram increases, many diagrams can be used for diagnosis by comparing a diagram of what should be happening with what is happening. This approach has been developed in detail by Bignell and Fortune (1984) to analyse systems failures. They argue that all satisfactory systems have functioning decision-making, operational and performance monitoring systems and that many failures can be explained by a failure in one of these aspects, even whe
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6 Poetic inversion

Poetic inversion, or changing the usual word order of speech, is often linked to the need to maintain a rhythm or to find a rhyme. We noticed Pope's poetic inversion in An Essay on Criticism and saw how the rhyme was intimately linked to the rhythm of the verse. The song ‘Dancing in the Street’, first recorded by Martha and the Vandellas in the 1960s, does violence to word order in the interests of rhyme – ‘There'll be dancing in the street/ A chance new folk to meet’
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Acknowledgements

This unit was written by Dr Robert Philip

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reprodu
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References

Brown, M.J.E. (1966) Schubert: A Critical Biography, London, Macmillan.
Deutsch, O.E. (1946) Schubert: A Documentary Biography, London, Dent.
Fischer-Dieskau, D. (1976) Schubert: A Biographical Study of his Songs, London, Cassell.
Goethe, J.W. von (1998) Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre, book 2, chapter 13,
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Discography

Details of the recordings of Schubert's lieder provided in this unit are as follows:

  • 'Heidenrölein'

    • Irmgard Seefreid, Hermann von Nordberg (rec 1947), TESTAMENT SBT 1026

  • 'Wanderers Nachtlied'

    • Hans Hotter, Gerald Moore (rec 1949), EMI CDH5 65196-2

  • 'Gretchen am Spinnrade'


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2.2 An initial exploration

To begin your own exploration of the Classical world, you will first read the introduction to the book of essays, Experiencing the Classical World. It has been written not only to introduce the essays in the book, but also to introduce you to some of the fundamentals of Classical Studies.

Activi
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2.7.1 Drawing a multiple-cause diagram

We can draw a multiple-cause diagram to explore and to communicate the complexity of a system, and to recognise that the effect of a particular system is normally the result of a number of different causes.

Examine the example shown in Figure 17 of the multi
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3.2 Search engines and subject gateways

Although both search engines and subject gateways will help you find the resources that you need, the types of information that you find will differ.

Search engines such as Google and Yahoo! search the internet for keywords or phrases, and then show you the results. These results are not mediated by the search engines, and therefore you need to use your own judgement on the reliability of the results. You may, for example, find websites written by experts, alongside websites written by
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3 Entrepreneurial work style

The need for supportive, open and communicative policies, structures and cultures in effective entrepreneurial firms as the optimal crucible for successful innovations comes through very strongly from studies of innovation and successful entrepreneurship. However, the strong internal locus of control of successful entrepreneurs suggests there may be a difficulty in accepting the influence of others, powerful or not. And, the strong need for autonomy does not suggest a personality open to shar
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • illustrate what is social about social science;

  • demonstrate how certain social constructions become dominant;

  • distinguish how labelling something can create expectations about behaviour and actions;

  • give examples of inequalities that result from particular social constructions.


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Introduction

Many governments across the world are moving towards the use of information communication technologies (ICTs) to allow citizens to access information and services. This course introduces you to e-government. You will look at the scope of e-government, the databases that are necessary, the use of biometrics in identification and verification of identity and assess the useability and accessibility of websites.

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Systems practice: Managing sustainability
This free course, Systems practice: Managing sustainability, introduces ways in which systems thinking can help support processes of decision making amongst stakeholders with different, often contrasting, perspectives on sustainable development in order to generate purposeful action to improve situations of change and uncertainty. You will learn about systems practice for managing sustainable development, and find out how 'learning systems' are designed for purposeful action in the domain of sus
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Systems modelling
Maps and plans, architects and engineers, drawings, graphs and tables: all are models we use in everyday life. This free course, Systems modelling, will introduce you to the modelling process, enabling you to recognise that systems models may be used in different ways as part of a process for: improving understanding of a situation; identifying problems or formulating opportunities and supporting decision making. Author(s): Creator not set

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1.1.6 Creating a comfortable working environment

The following suggestions concerning working with visual display units (VDUs) come from the 2003 Health and Safety Executive leaflet Working with VDUs.

  • Adjust your chair and VDU (Visual Display Unit) to find the most comfortable position for your work. As a broad guide, your arms should be approximately horizontal and your eyes at the same height as the top of the VDU.

  • Make sure there is space underneath your desk to move your legs fr
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1.2.1 Ethics

The first factor is ethics. Disabled people should not be excluded from using any product, device or service if it is at all possible to avoid this: disabled people have the same rights as non-disabled people to access goods and services. Teachers generally try to write material that reflects the experiences of women, as well as men and those of people from diverse backgrounds, to make a course inclusive and ‘pedagogically accessible’. This good practice should be extended to include refl
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