From the Start menu on your Windows desktop choose â€˜Programsâ€™, then â€˜Accessoriesâ€™ and then â€˜Calculatorâ€™ (if â€˜Calculatorâ€™ doesn't appear on the menu, click the double down arrows at the bottom).

If this is the first time you have used the Windows calculator then it is possible that only the standard view of the calculator will be displayed, but you will need to use the scientific view. To display this, click on the View menu in the calculator's menu bar and select â€˜Scie
Author(s): The Open University

The Windows calculator is supplied with the Windows operating system. This section provides you with basic instructions for its use, and a few practice activities. The Windows calculator also provides a help menu that you can use.

Author(s): The Open University

After finishing this unit you should be able to:

• use the Windows calculator to carry out basic operations and calculate percentages;

• interpret and use information presented in tables and charts;

• be able to round numbers appropriately.

Author(s): The Open University

• *The Good Study Guide by Andrew Northedge, published by The Open University, 1990, ISBN 0 7492 00448.

Chapter 4 is entitled â€˜Working with numbersâ€™

Other chapters are entitled: â€˜Reading and note takingâ€™, â€˜Other ways of studyingâ€™, â€˜What is good writing?â€™, â€˜How to write essaysâ€™, â€˜Preparing for examinationsâ€™.

• The Sciences Good Study Guide by Andrew Northedge, Jeff Thomas, Andrew Lane, Alice
Author(s): The Open University

First, you need to decide what it is you want your chart to illustrate. This may be governed by the data you have access to or you might need to collect the data yourself. Then the process is as below.

1. Decide on a clear title.

The title should be a brief description of the data that you want to show.

2. Identify how many bars are needed.

The bars correspond to the number of categories you have. For instance, if you are look
Author(s): The Open University

A bar chart is not the best way to show the link or mathematical relationship between two sets of data, for this you would use a line graph.

Author(s): The Open University

A bar chart is a good method of representation if you want to illustrate a set of data in a way that is as easy to understand as it is simple to read. In general, a bar chart should be used for data that can be counted so, for example, we could use a bar chart to show the number of families with 0, 1, 2 or more children. A bar chart could also be used to show how many people in one area use each of the different modes of transport to get to work.

Bar charts are very useful for comparing
Author(s): The Open University

As a student, you are likely to present data in a table after you have carried out an investigation, particularly when you are writing up the report. Some courses include a small-scale project and this is likely to be the point at which knowledge of how to design a table will be useful. The following steps form a reliable guide.

1. Collect the data.

In the case of a project, you are likely to collect the data yourself, possibly from other written
Author(s): The Open University

If you want to improve your computing skills or knowledge, there are plenty of resources available to help you. This section aims to get your search started by providing you with some useful websites.

Author(s): The Open University

The BBC offers an Absolute Beginners' Guide to Using Your Computer (accessed 8 November 2006). This guide is ideal for anyone really new to computers.

If you're interested in the more technical aspects of how computers work and how they've developed over time, have a look at the BBC/Open University Information Communication Technology portal (accessed 8 November 2006).

Author(s): The Open University

This option is the most challenging and most rewarding, as it clearly shows that you have explored and analysed the source material and reworked it for yourself. In many cases, the source material may not contain any diagrams, simply text or numbers, perhaps expressed as a table. Alternatively, you may have had to make some specific observations or undertake an experiment to produce your own data. In this case, you may be expected to produce a diagram to enhance or improve your assignment. If
Author(s): The Open University

So far in this unit we have been looking at how you can improve your understanding of other people's texts and diagrams. I have shown you some study techniques that you can use to â€˜translateâ€™ text into diagrams and diagrams into meaningful text. However, this discussion has been focused on what you can do for yourself. At some point, you'll have to produce assignments that require, or will be enhanced by, the use of diagrams. One of the first decisions you'll face is whether to use an exi
Author(s): The Open University

Hinnells, J. R. (ed.) (1995) A New Dictionary of Religions, Oxford, Blackwell.

Author(s): The Open University

Blom, E., revised by Cumings, D. (eds) (1991) The New Everyman Dictionary of Music, London, Dent.

Isaacs, A., and Martin, E. (eds) (1982) Dictionary of Music, London, Sphere.

Author(s): The Open University

McArthur, T. (ed.) (1992) The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Author(s): The Open University

There is no general dictionary or companion to the study of history as such. However, there are period and subject-specific companions and indexes, such as:

Jones, C. (1990) The Longman Companion to the French Revolution, London, Longman.

Consult those appropriate to your course.

Author(s): The Open University

A final point that emerged from our analysis of Philip's and Hansa's essays was that a good essay is easy to read. Grand-sounding phrases and elaborate sentences do not make an essay impressive. Clarity and economy are what count. Such ease of reading is achieved at several levels.

Author(s): The Open University

One of the things I said an essay should be is â€˜objectiveâ€™. What does that mean? Being objective about something means standing back from it and looking at it coolly. It means focusing your attention on the â€˜objectâ€™, on what you are discussing, and not on yourself and your own (subjective) feelings about it. Your ideas should be able to survive detailed inspection by other people who are not emotionally committed to them.

An essay should argue by force of reason, not emot
Author(s): The Open University

Both Philip and Hansa occasionally use words and phrases that don't really do the job they want. We saw, for instance, that Philip uses the word â€˜resemblanceâ€™ when actually he means â€˜contrastâ€™. Here are some other examples from his writing.

 Philip's words More accurate words Paragraph 1 â€˜portAuthor(s): The Open UniversityLicense informationRelated contentExcept for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share The first thing I noticed about Philip's essay is that although it begins with a title it is not the one he was given. This immediately creates two problems. If I were Philip's tutor I would find it difficult to weigh up his essay against the challenge he was actually set. The title he has made up is not a good one, so it weakens his essay from the outset. Philip's title doesn't pose a question for him to answeAuthor(s): The Open UniversityLicense informationRelated contentExcept for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Copyright 2009 University of Nottingham