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3.4 How does the EU operate?

The EU operates through institutions created in the treaties. These institutions can have decision-making powers, law-making powers or may act as part of a checking and consultation procedure.

The institutions include:

  1. The European Parliament (represents the people of the EU).

  2. The Council of the European Union (represents the member states of the EU).

  3. The European Commission (represents the interests of the EU).

    <
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3.3.1 Try some yourself

Activity 20

Look at the diagram below and answer the following questions:

  • (a) Write down the coordinates of the points P, Q, R, S and T.


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2.6.3 Re-working Hansa's essay

Now we have looked at Philip's and Hansa's essays in such detail, what have we learned? Perhaps the best way to answer that is to write another version of the essay, building on all the things we have discussed. In fact, I have taken the basic content of Hansa's essay, tidied it up and shuffled it about a little to bring out her argument more strongly. (However this is not the only possible way of structuring an argument in answer to this question.) I have also woven in some of Ellis's terms,
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to c
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3.4 Cognitive and non-cognitive states

At several points in the Reading, James draws a sharp contrast between emotions and what he terms ‘cognitions’. The distinction between cognitive and non-cognitive states will crop up fairly regularly from now on, so I shall pause at this point to make it clear how I am going to understand this distinction. Unfortunately, different philosophers understand the distinction in different ways; I shall introduce two possible interpretations of the distinction.

On one interpretation, the
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5.5 Evaluating strategy and presenting outcomes

This stage of the framework focuses on identifying what you have achieved and how well you have achieved it. It involves you in evaluating your overall strategy and presenting the outcomes of your work. As you evaluate and assess your strategy, identify aspects of your IT skills that you want to develop further. At the end of this stage, use the records in your Skills File to complete the activity ‘Evaluating your use of IT strategy and presenting outcomes’ and pull together this final st
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3.2 Urban unrest: the case of the French urban periphery

‘France had a rebellion of its underclass’, argued American social scientist Immanuel Wallerstein (2005). He was referring to the ‘unrest’ or ‘riots’ which began on Thursday 28 October 2005 in Clichy-sous-Bois, a large public housing estate, or banlieue, on the outskirts of Paris, and then spread to a number of other areas across urban France. The riots were sparked by the accidental deaths of two young boys fleeing the police. The boys were subsequently referred to by the
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3.1 The impact of information technology

Having discussed the radical and pervasive effect that inventions in previous eras have had on economy-wide productivity, and how they have even defined entire periods, we shall now ask how the rise of information technology compares to these previous revolutions. During the early growth phase of PC use, a leader article in Fortune magazine did not hesitate to compare the rise of the PC to previous technological revolutions.

<
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The Allied Victory
On April 12, 1945, President Roosevelt died suddenly. Harry S. Truman, vice president for less than three months and untutored in foreign affairs, entered the White House. Truman told reporters that he felt "as if the sun, moon, and the stars" had fallen upon his shoulders, but he was determined to follow through on FDR's vision of a United Nations. Secretary of State Stettinius met in San Francisco with delegates from nearly 50 nations, and signed the U.N. charter on June 26. Unlike the League
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Finding information in Arts and History
This free course, Finding information in arts and history, will help you to identify and use information in arts and history, whether for your work, study or personal purposes. Experiment with some of the key resources in this subject area, and learn about the skills which will enable you to plan searches for information, so you can find what you are looking for more easily. Discover the meaning of information quality, and learn how to evaluate the information you come across. You will also be i
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References

Antidote (2005) www.antidote.org.uk [accessed 14 February 2008].
Ashley, J. (2005) ‘It is adults who have made teenagers’ lives a misery’, Guardian, 3 February, p. 24.
Barton, L. (2005) ‘S'alright … Being 15’, Guardian G2, 16 March, p. 2.
Beck, U. (1992) Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, London, Sa
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Acknowledgements

This course was written by Professor John Wolffe.

This free course is an adapted extract from the course A207 From Enlightenment to Romanticism, c.1780–1830, which is currently out of presentation

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Author(s): The Open University

3.7 Accessible audio

Audio files can greatly increase the vibrancy of eLearning materials. Of course any audio materials need a text version alongside to make them accessible, but this does not negate the fact that audio can be much more digestible to many learners than on-screen text. A free software program called Audacity can be used very easily to create and edit sound clips (there are dozens of t
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Introduction

This unit is from our archive and it is an adapted extract from Human biology and health (SK220), which is no longer in presentation. If you wish to study formally at The Open University, you may wish to explore the courses we offer in this curriculum area.

To be able to understand the importance of the environment for our health, we n
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Video Culture Class: Spanish Holidays #21 - Viking Pilgrimage
Learn more about Spanish culture with SpanishPod101.com! Ever wondered what the most important Spanish holidays are, and how they are celebrated? Then this 25-lesson video series is for you! With this series, you’ll learn the what, why, when and how of 25 well-known holidays in Spain.In this video, you’ll learn all about Viking Pilgrimage in [...]
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Water Treatment
Do you think about where your water comes from? In the UK each of us uses an average of about 150 litres of water per day! The seven video tracks in this album consider issues of demand and quality in water supply as well as treatment processes. They give information on methods of minimising waste, emergency water treatment and effluent control. This material forms part of T308 Environmental monitoring, modelling and control.Author(s): The iTunes U team

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3.8 Following up the report

The evaluation report will often contain recommendations for further actions and these may lead to new project ideas. Recommendations may relate to processes and procedures within the organisation. Project evaluation and debriefing can be a learning experience for the organisation as a whole, as well as for individuals. For example, British Petroleum gathers the lessons learnt from post-project appraisals in a series of booklets that are then used as guidance for writing project proposals. In
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand how the legal system in the UK works

  • understand how laws are made in the UK

  • understand some of the key players in UK law enforcement

  • understand different ways of taking notes.


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1.5.9 Plagiarism

Referencing is not only useful as a way of sharing information, but also as a means of ensuring that due credit is given to other people's work. In the electronic information age, it is easy to copy and paste from journal articles and web pages into your own work. But if you do use someone else's work, you should acknowledge the source by giving a correct reference.

Taking someone's work and not indicating where you took it from is termed plagiarism and is regarded as an infringement of
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