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6 Conclusion

William Wilberforce died on 29 July 1833, two days after hearing that the legislation for the abolition of slavery in British dominions had successfully completed its passage through the House of Commons, a fitting conclusion to the work he had begun nearly half a century before.

The Practical View both reflected and contributed to a major shift in religious consciousness of which the continuing growth of the Evangelical movement was the most striking manifestation. Methodist num
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5.2 Wilberforce’s anti-slavery campaign in context

Certainly the outcome was a positive one from Wilberforce’s point of view in that abolition of the slave trade in British ships and colonial possessions passed rapidly through both Houses of Parliament, and became law in March 1807. This result in part implied an increased receptivity to Wilberforce’s religious arguments against slavery, but there were also other factors at work. These included the advance of liberal ideas of justice and toleration, themselves reflecting the influence of
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4.5 The interaction of religion and society

Exercise 4

Now read the previous extract again with the associated commentary which draws out the key points and their significance, particularly in helping to understand the interaction of religion and society at thi
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4.4 Political implications

In chapter VI of A Practical View Wilberforce broadens his perspective from the primarily spiritual emphasis of the earlier chapters to a consideration of the political implications of his analysis. In so doing he contributed to the ongoing debate on the French Revolution and the changing nature of British society and politics.

A Practical View can usefully be compared here with another work that gave considerable prominence to religion in the aftermath of 1789, Edmund Bu
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1.7 Kepler and logarithms

Kepler was precisely the kind of practitioner for whom logarithms were of greatest benefit: a professional astronomer (and, of course, competent Latin scholar) driven at times to distraction – he tells us – by the magnitude and complexity of the calculations he needed to do. So when he was able to study a copy of Napier's Descriptio in about 1619 he welcomed it warmly, dedicating his next book to Napier (not realising he had been dead for two years); and he went further. Napier's b
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2.3.5 History

The census of 1911, the year of MacLean's birth, recorded 200,000 speakers of Scottish Gaelic. Fifty years later, the number had dropped to 81,000. If MacLean's vision is frequently pessimistic, this must surely derive at least in part from the dwindling of the culture and language to which he had committed himself as poet.

Please now read ‘A Highland Woman’.

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2.3.4 War

MacLean's love poems present a situation where the speaker is baffled by stasis. He cannot act. Frustration in love is involved with political frustration.

Gaelic tradition values men of action – often heroes who died in defeat. The battle cry of the MacLeans, ‘Fear eile air son Eachainn’ (‘Another One for Hector’), recalls the battle of Inverkeithing in 1651, when the seventeenth chief of the clan, ‘Red Hector of the Battles’, fell in action. Clansman after clansm
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2.2 Background and recordings

Sorley MacLean, 1911–98, is now regarded as one of the greatest Scottish poets of the twentieth century. Until the 1970s, his verse was known by very few people. In that decade, publication of English translations and the impact of his public readings established him in the eyes of poetry lovers in Scotland, Ireland and England, as well as further afield, as a major poet.

Yet, curiously, this impact depended on work that mostly derived from a very specific conjunction of personal and
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2.1.1 Aims

The aims of these recordings, in which Sorley MacLean is interviewed by Iain Crichton-Smith, are to:

  • (a) help you to sense the power of MacLean's poetry in its original Gaelic;

  • (b) assist your understanding of the English texts of the poems, translated by MacLean himself.


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1 Approaching philosophy

The 1960s show Beyond the Fringe included a sketch satirizing philosophy. In it, Jonathan Miller and Alan Bennett play two Oxbridge philosophers discussing the role of philosophy in everyday life. It concludes like this:

Jon: … the burden is fair and square on your shoulders to explain to me the exact relevance philosophy does have to everyday life.

Alan: Yes, I can do this quite easily. This mo
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1 'The Enlightenment'

What a change there was between 1785 and 1824! There has probably never been such an abrupt revolution in habits, ideas and beliefs in the two thousand years since we have known the history of the world.

(Stendhal, Racine and Shakespeare, 1825; 1962 edn, p. 144)

This course looks at a period of 50 years or so during which European culture underwent one of the most profound and far-reaching
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7 Other rhyming techniques

  • Near- or half rhymes are words or combinations of words that achieve only a partial rhyme. Half rhymes can be between words with just one syllable, or between parts of words, for example where the accented syllables rhyme with each other, but other syllables in the word don't rhyme. For instance: cover–shovel; wily–piling, calling–fallen; wildebeest–building.

  • Assonant rhyme refers to echoing vowel sounds, either in
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6 Rhyme

Activity 17

Now listen to Track 4, on which Jackie Kay and Paul Muldoon talk about rhyme.

Click below to listen to track 4.

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5.2 Free verse

Although we can't make rules about what constitutes a poem, we can see that even when writing free verse, where lines and line-breaks may be irregular, form is still important. Free verse still makes use of technical effects: rhythms, grammatical structures, sound effects, etc. Also, it invariably still makes grammatical sense. Free verse, with its infinite elasticity, can recreate form anew in each poem, inventing a one-off organising principle which explains that particular poem.


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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence.

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject
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References

Bray, M. (1981) Bells of Memory: a history of the Loughborough Carillion, Loughborough, BRD Publishing.

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4 Form of memorial

I now want you to think about the form of ‘your’ war memorial. I don't think you will have had any difficulty in knowing what to look for when I asked you whether you had a memorial near to you, and where it was. You may have had to think about the question, and search for the memorial, but you knew what you were looking for.

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1 War memorial and commemoration

In this course you will have an opportunity to practise good study techniques using a framework within which to use them. Obviously, since you are shortly to begin your study of a range of disciplines, it will make sense to use a framework, or theme, that is relevant to the arts as a whole. The theme we have selected is that of commemoration and memorials.

Studying this course will give you the experience of looking at, and thinking about, ideas that form the study of the humanities. At
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