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Introduction

This course explores questions about New Labour's approach to welfare reconstruction. This is linked to the unsettling and remaking of the old Welfare State by the New Right. The material is primarily an audio file, originally 27 minutes in length, and recorded in 1999.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 2 study in Author(s): The Open University

Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • illustrate how cities can be represented as dangerous places to live

  • give examples of the place of crime in representations of cities.


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Introduction

The material presented here raises general themes of order and disorder, the way they are represented or signified, and the place of crime in these representations. The material is based upon an audio file, originally 29 minutes in length, and examines the problem of crime in relation to the city of Glasgow. It was recorded in 1999.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 2 study in Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

This key skill develops your information literacy (IL) skills in your studies, work or other activities over a period of time. To tackle all of this section you will need to plan your work over at least 3–4 months to give you enough time to practise and improve your skills, to seek feedback from others, and to monitor and evaluate your progress.

Information literacy is not the same as information technology. Information and communication technology skills tend to concentrate on using
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Diagramming for development 2 - Exploring interrelationships
Diagramming for development 2 - Exploring interrelationships, is a free course that introduces you to the diagramming techniques of Influence diagrams, Multiple Cause Diagrams and Cognitive Maps. Using a case study project based in Africa, this unit illustrates the powerful use of systems diagramming for international development management. This is a companion course to Diagramming for development 1: bounding realities. Author(s): Creator not set

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Successful IT systems
Information technology (IT) systems are a critical part of our world, in business and the public and voluntary sectors. They are often highly complex and interconnected combinations of technology, organisations and people. Success and failure of IT systems can be seen in many different settings. Many are highly successful; others fail, sometimes spectacularly. This free course focuses on success, to help you understand what is meant by a successful IT system.Author(s): Creator not set

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Using a computer for study
The internet is a fantastic source of information for any student, but how do you evaluate the information each site provides? This free course, Using a computer for study, will help you assess the benefits of information technology, providing guidance on the protocols for using email, online conferencing and real time chat as methods of communication. First
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Visualisation: Visual representations of data and information
Modern society is often referred to as 'the information society' - but how can we make sense of all the information we are bombarded with? In this free course, Visualisation: Visual representations of data and information, you will learn how to interpret, and in some cases create, visual representations of data and information that help us to see things in a different way. Author(s): Creator not set

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Web guide
Frightened of the internet? This free course, Web guide, will help you make effective use of the internet, giving you the basic skills required for using web-based resources. Useful tricks and tips are provided as well as information on web browsers, the main features of a browser window, how to look at websites, using hyperlinks, searching for information on the internet, copying text, avoiding computer viruses, and using PDFs.Author(s): Creator not set

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Systems thinking and practice
What is systems thinking and practice? The essence of systems thinking and practice is in 'seeing' the world in a particular way, because how you 'see' things affects the way you approach situations or undertake specific tasks. This free course will help you to learn about the problems of defining a system and meet some of the key concepts used in systems theory: boundary, environment, positive and negative feedback, etc. Author(s): Creator not set

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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Computing and ICT. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner. 


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9.1 What is a state machine?

An event is an occurrence of a phenomenon at a certain moment in time. The occurrence of the event itself is assumed to have no duration. Typically, when an event occurs, it affects the state of an object. A state machine is a model of the behaviour of a single object over time and helps you to understand how that object's state affects its reactions to events.

Figure 18 shows a state machine diagram (known as a statechart diagram in the UML) relating to the occupancy of a room in a hot
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8.2 Example of a university registration data model

Here is a statement of the data requirements for a product to support the registration of and provide help to students of a fictitious e-learning university.

A UK-based e-learning university needs to keep details of its students and staff, the courses that it offers and the performance of the students who study its courses. The university is administered in four geographical regions (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland).

Information about each student should be initially
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8.1 Introduction

One type of data model is an entity–relationship data model.

Experience has shown that data can be best described by relationships between entities. An entity is anything of interest about which data is recorded, such as roads, weather stations, trucks and weather station readings in the IceBreaker project in the book MRP. In general, there will be many relationships (or associations) linking the entities. A trivial example is the fact that a given weather reading
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7.2 Exercises

Exercise 5

Draw an activity diagram for the main success scenario for the check out guest use case.


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6.13 Exercises

Exercise 1

Write down a textual description (using the format of Table 2, reproduced below) of the use case check in guest, shown in Figure 3, also below. As part of your deliberations, identify any exceptions t
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6.11 Issues with use cases

There can be a tendency to make diagrams too complex. You can reduce the complexity of your use case diagram by:

  • redrawing it at a higher level of abstraction;

  • splitting it up into smaller modules, which the UML calls packages.

In the case of the hotel chain, we might partition our model into the following three packages:

  • reservations;

  • checking guests in and o
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6.10 To extend or include?

Whatever kind of system you intend to develop, you will need to consider its security. Usually, we allow only trustworthy people to use a new system. Therefore, in a software solution we can envisage a log-on use case, which describes how a user gains access through some authentication procedure. How should such a requirement be included in the example of the hotel chain?

By analogy with natural languages, the UML allows a number of ‘grammatically correct’ options each of which will
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6.5 More about actors

In the hotel example, you saw two actors in the use case diagram shown in Figure 3 (reproduced below). Why is the actor Guest associated with the use case for making a reservation but not associated with the use cases for checking in and out? The answer comes from an understanding of what happens when someone, a guest, arrives at a hotel. Hotels are service oriented. That is to say, they offer certain services to their guests with the intention of earning money for the business. A hote
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