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5.2 Devolution in Scotland

Scotland endured a long and complicated process towards self-determination. In a 1979 referendum, the Scots voted in favour of the Labour government proposals to establish a Scottish Parliament, but, thanks to a special majority provision requiring at least 40 per cent of the registered electorate to vote in favour, devolution was rejected when only 32.9 per cent of the electorate voted in favour in the referendum.


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2.5 Summary of Section 1

  • England, Scotland and Wales are nations.

  • Wales was conquered by the English in 1282 and its parliamentary union with England took place in 1536.

  • The United Kingdom of Great Britain was formed by the Act of Union of 1707, although the term Great Britain had been in use since 1603, when James VI of Scotland became James I of England (including Wales). Later unions created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and,
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2.3 Wales

In 1282, Edward I conquered Wales and the Statute of Rhuddlan (or Statute of Wales, 1284) established English rule. Rather than involve the assimilation of the Welsh by the English the conquest saw ‘a colonial system … established in those parts of Llywelyn's Principality which were by 1284 in the hands of the king’ (Davies, 1991, p. 166). In 1400, Owain Glyndwr led the most outstanding and successful rising in Wales against the new order and the tyranny of the English border barons, wh
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5.3.2 Productivity difference

The preceding discussion has only considered what would happen if all women undertake less investment in human capital than men. If men and women invest to the same extent, human capital theory suggests that no wage differences would be observed. What happens, however, if there are differences in skill levels both between genders and within gender groups? To consider this we will also make the additional assumption that firms do not know when recruiting workers who are the most productive. Ho
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3.3 Other disadvantaged groups

Information on other disadvantaged groups, such as older workers or people with disabilities, is even harder to come by. The problems faced by older workers in the labour market have become an increasing cause for concern in recent years. The nature of the disadvantage faced by older workers is, however, much harder to uncover and the evidence is often anecdotal. One trend that has become evident during the past three decades is the difficulty older workers have in obtaining any work and, in
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The Final Cut
It is often said that a movie comes to life in the edit suite. Ben Harrex of Final Cut post production studios in London discusses five themes with examples; The Cut, The Dissolve, Cropping and Resizing, Titles and The Sound. Ben explains how the video editor has a huge amount of creative control over how the final product looks. This material forms part of The Open University course T215 Communication and information technologies.Author(s): The OpenLearn team

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5.1 Ideology: a contested concept

Propagators of ideologies use images and symbols to get people to believe and act in certain ways. Nationalism as a political ideology uses the idea of ‘nation’ to achieve political goals, and may be the most potent ideology in existence. It is worth reflecting for a moment on what kind of ideology it is. And it is worth reminding ourselves that ideology is a contested concept; a term that can mean different things. Marx and Engels subscribed to the notion of ideology as a set of ideas th
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Online Rights and the Law
How does the law stand in relation to web privacy? Do we have the same rights online as we do in life? The online revolution has moved rapidly but has the law managed to keep up with it and what has been the impact on our legal rights? These two films touch upon issues that have emerged as a result of a growing online community like the complications that arise when attempting to reconcile how various countries use different laws to police an individual’s omnipresent profile on the net. It als
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Introduction

Relational database systems underpin the majority of the managed data storage in computer systems. This course presents an overview of the development life cycle for a database system and highlights how the database development differs from traditional software development.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 3 study in Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

This course provides an introduction to data and processes in software, and provides a basis that enables these fundamental ideas to be developed in a clear and precise way. It has two main aims. The first is to illustrate how we can describe ways in which data may be structured and processed. The second is to introduce you to some vocabulary and concepts that help us to do this. The material is accessible to anyone with a little experience of the use of symbols in presenting ideas.

Sec
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Natural intelligence
One goal of artificial intelligence is to build machines that can operate in the real world, with all its noise and uncertainty. Much of what we want machines to do (see, recognise, navigate, move, coordinate) is already done very well by simple creatures. In this free course, Natural intelligence, we look at how such creatures achieve these goals and start to understand how we can build machines with the same capabilities. Author(s): Creator not set

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Introduction

Requires that Windows desktop be used in parallel with reading the book.

Tables and charts are a great way to present numerical information in a clear and concise form. This course explains how to use the Windows calculator to carry out basic operations and calculate percentages. You will then learn how to use charts and tables to represent and interpret information.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of level 1 study in Author(s): The Open University

An introduction to web applications architecture
This free course, An introduction to web applications architecture, provides an overview of the design and implementation of computer software that runs on web servers, instead of those running solely on desktop computers, laptops or mobile devices. First published on Thu, 03 May 2018 as Author(s): Creator not set

Introduction

There is more to computers and processors than simply PCs. In fact computers are ubiquitous in everyday life. This unit challenges how we view computers through the examples of processors in kitchen scales and digital cameras, as well as a work of art that, at heart, is a computer.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of level 2 study in Author(s): The Open University

Take your teaching online
In this free course, Take your teaching online, you will gain  knowledge fundamental to delivering effective teaching online. You will hear about the experiences of real educators, be introduced to cutting edge research, and understand the ideas and tools that shape how we teach and learn online. You will also learn useful methods that will guide you to test out these new ideas in your own practice. Author(s): Creator not set

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Objectives for Section 4

After studying this section you should be able to do the following.

  • Recognise and use the terminology: function, signature, domain, semantics, input set, output set, precondition, postcondition.

  • Suggest appropriate signatures and preconditions for functions corresponding to a variety of processes on numbers, characters and sequences, including those with more than one input and those that return a Boolean value.

  • For
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4.3 Character code functions

Many programming languages provide two functions associated with the character codes (see Table 2). We shall call these functions ASC and CHR. ASC takes a character as input, and returns the integer giving the ASCII code of the input character. CHR returns the character whose ASCII code is the input inte
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Processes that can be applied to data

Having looked at some forms of data, we now turn our attention to processes that can be applied to data. Each process that we consider in this section will input data of a specified form, and will result in a corresponding value. For example, one process, which we will call ASC, takes a character as input, and has as its resulting value the integer giving the ASCII code of the input character (as listed in Author(s): The Open University

3.4 Representing data in applications

Suppose that you are designing software for some application. You will be working with a programming language that enables you to communicate instructions to a computer. In this programming language, certain forms of data will already be represented electronically. These will include common forms of data, such as numbers, characters and sequences. In any particular application, you are likely also to be concerned with forms of data that are peculiar to that application. Having identified some
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand ways in which data may be stored and processed

  • distinguish between different forms of data, and use notations introduced in the course to show different forms of data

  • appreciate that fine details may be important when interpreting formal notation (for example, different types of brackets may be used to distinguish between different forms of data)

  • interpret a given function
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