The European Convention on Human Rights was introduced in course W100_4 *Europe and the law*, and through your previous studies you have probably already considered cases (such as that of Diane Pretty) where articles of the European Convention on Human Rights were under debate. Here you will look at its legal implications in more detail. You will consider how the European Convention on Human Rights came into being, why it was considered necessary to create such an instrument, what are it

The vast majority of companies are, indeed, set up and run with â€˜commercial objectsâ€™ â€“ in other words, they are business enterprises, or â€˜undertakingsâ€™, set up to trade and make a profit. It is principally in the context of the company as a form of business organisation (or â€˜business mediumâ€™) that we will be studying it. So, before we start to look in detail at what companies are, it is a good idea to have a grasp of what companies do, which will lead us on to consider why they

The European Parliament fulfils three main functions:

it shares the power to legislate

it exercises democratic supervision over all EC institutions

it shares authority over the EC budget.

The legislative and supervisory roles are based on the European Parliament's democratic legitimacy. Its members are directly elected every five years by the citizens of the EU member states.

4.4 The Council of the European Union

The Council represents the interests of the individual member states and is seen as the legislative arm of the EU. It is composed of active representatives of the governments of the member states. Usually, these representatives are the departmental or junior ministers responsible for the matters under consideration at a specific Council meeting. This means that the Council itself, unlike the Commission, has no stable membership. Its membership varies depending upon the issues tabled for discu

The European Council brings together heads of state and government in order to decide on issues of common interest and overall EU policy and to review progress. In principle the European Council must meet at least twice a year but usually meets four times a year. The meetings are known as Summits. The European Council is the highest level policy-making body of the EU:

The European Council shall provide the Union with t

The institutions of the EU work towards objectives related to the three pillars and the creation of a body of Community law that applies

uniformly

in all member states.

The institutions having legal rule-making powers include the European Council, the Council of the European Union, the European Parliament and the European Commission. Finally, there is the European Court of Justice (ECJ), which has the power to settle lega

Introduction to algebra

This free course is an introduction to algebra which builds on the idea of using letters to represent numbers. Section 1 looks at finding, simplifying and using formulas and includes useful tips on learning algebra. Section 2 introduces some of the terminology used in algebra and techniques such as evaluating and checking equivalence of expressions, identifying terms in an expression and collecting like terms. Section 3 looks at how to simplify terms and introduces index notation and multiplying

Modelling and estimation

This free course is concerned with modelling and estimation and looks in particular at the binomial distribution. Section 1 starts by defining probability, introduces relevant notation and briefly discusses basic properties of probabilities. The section concludes by considering some of the general features of and ideas about modelling discrete random variables. Section 2 looks at one particular probability model for discrete data, the binomial distribution. Section 3 investigates how data can be

Lastly consider division. Dividing 8 by 2 means â€˜How many times does 2 go into 8?â€™ or â€˜What must you multiply 2 by to get 8?â€™. The answer is 4.

So to find 8 Ã· ^{âˆ’}2, you need to ask â€˜What do I have to multiply ^{âˆ’}2 by to get 8?â€™. The answer is ^{âˆ’}4, since ^{âˆ’}2 Ã— ^{âˆ’}4 = 8.

So 8 Ã· ^{âˆ’}2 = ^{âˆ’}4.

Similarly, to find ^{âˆ’}8 Ã· ^{âˆ’}2 you need to ask â€˜what do I have to mul

The rules for multiplying positive and negative numbers can be illustrated by the table below.

Multiplying a **positive** number by a **positive** number gives a **positive** answer.

Multiplying a **negative** number by a **positive** number gives a **negative** answer.

Multi

## Activity 52

Evaluate each of the following.

Author(s):

3.13 More division with fractions

How about other fractions? What is 6 Ã· ? This means how many Author(s):

## Activity 28

Look at the rules in the boxes above.

Write in your own words the rules for multiplying and dividing, adding and subtracting two numbers, giving an example of each.

In order to compare quantities, it is best to express them in the same units.

## Example 10

Three children have just measured their own heights in metric units. Isaac says â€˜My height is 1098â€™, Jasmine says â€˜My height is 112â€™ and Kim says â€˜Mine is 1.1â€™. What units were

## Activity 15

Suggest appropriate units for each of the following:

(a) the age of the kitten when it is weaned;

(b) the distance between one train station and the

## Activity 9

The diagram below shows an oatmeal cake marked into 12 equal portions. I want to give my sister a third of the cake. Where could I cut the cake, and what would be left over?

5 Example of a straightforward subtraction

In the example below of a straightforward subtraction, in every column the digit at the top of the column is bigger than the digit at the bottom. Click on each step in turn to see how to carry out the calculation.