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2.3.2 The crater Pwyll

You might also have noted that there are no obvious impact craters visible in Figure 16 (see Section 2.3.1). In fact there are a few. One is a bright spot, 15 km in diameter, surrounded by a dark halo of ejecta that occurs 10 mm from the top edge and 65 mm from the left-hand edge of the figure. Another is a s
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • discuss processes upon and within, and internal structure of, differentiated icy bodies (primarily large satellites) in comparison with the terrestrial planets;

  • describe the conditions that may be required to originate and foster life in an icy body and discuss the likelihood of their having occurred;

  • recognise the moral and ethical issues of landing spacecraft on potential life-bearing worlds and appre
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Acknowledgements

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

T
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6 Reflections

DA opens the TV programme by stating that ‘monkeys and apes have the richest social life of all mammals’. I have explored the importance of colour vision in the interactions between individuals and discussed how gestural and vocal communication add considerably to this richness. But ultimately, it is their ability to be innovative, to discover new ways of obtaining foods, to learn from one another (so-called cultural learning), to form friendships, alliances and coalitions between individ
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3.5.2 Vocal communication

In order to be able to state that animals are communicating vocally with one another, scientists need to demonstrate that particular sounds made by one individual can be understood and acted upon by others.

Activity 5

You will be
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3.2 Colour vision

DA stresses that colour vision is very important in primates, not only because colour is used ‘in sexual displays’ such as advertising a female's receptiveness to mating [p. 275], but also to identify ripe fruit [p.247] and to select nutritious leaves [p. 255]. This section discusses these points in more detail and explains how the visual system in primates is able to detect colour.

White light is composed of light of different wavelengths, from 300–800 nanometres (nm); 1 nm is on
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1 The anthropoids

As you work through this unit you will come across boxes, like this one, which give you advice about the study skills that you will be developing as you progress through the unit. To avoid breaking up the flow of the text, they will usually appear at the start or end of the sections.

In this unit you'
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References

Durant, J., Bauer, M., Gaskell, G., Midden, C., Liakopoulos, M. and Scholten, L. (2000) ‘Two cultures of public understanding of science andtechnology in Europe’ in Dierkes, M. and Von Grote, C. (eds) Between Understanding and Trust: the Public, Science and Technology, Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers.
Eurobarometer
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6 Promoting science promotion: the move from deficit to dialogue

This unit has tried to distinguish between institutional science outreach events and independent alternatives by recognising some of their characteristics and evaluating the extent to which they fulfil (and even create) a political mandate for PEST (Public Engagement in Science and Technology). Although institutional events sometimes involve the deficit style of ‘top-down’ transmission of facts, the examples provided in this unit suggest that they are increasingly imaginative and unusual.
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5 Public learning agendas

So far, this unit has argued that public engagement with science can be through both institutionalised events and independent contributions – hopefully, something for everyone. But to what extent will this be a consistent move towards dialogue and understanding, as requested by the UK and EU policies mentioned in Section 2?

Reading 2 suggests a move towards genuine interaction is possible if there is enough political motivation to enhance community learning of science and technology
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4.3 Phenotypic changes that appeared without being selected

As well as these behavioural changes, many of the selected foxes had unusual white markings (Figures 13c and d). The first colour change that the Russian investigators noted in their foxes was a white ‘star’ on the forehead similar to that of other domesticated mammals (Author(s): The Open University

4.1 Introduction

Domestication of dogs and of most other livestock took place so long ago that reconstructing the course of events is extremely difficult. Written records and illustrations describing the origins of many modern breeds are also sparse until the 19th century. We can only guess at what the domesticators were aiming to produce and how and when domesticated traits appeared in the species subjected to artificial selection. However, a little-known experiment on the domestication of red foxes (Vulp
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3.1 Angular size

Figure 19
Figure 19 A total eclipse of the Sun, revealing the outer part of the Sun's atmosphere, the corona, and the inner part, the chromosphere, which can just be seen
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2 Inside the Sun

To account for its brightness and activity, the Sun must contain a power source. However, the nature of that power source was a great puzzle in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Fossil records and ideas about evolution were beginning to provide firm evidence that the Earth must be at least hundreds of millions of years old, rather than thousands of years as was previously thought, and the Sun must be at least as old as the Earth. The only fuels known at the time were coal, wood, o
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1.3 Beyond visible light

During the twentieth century, astronomers extended their capabilities by developing telescopes and detectors that were sensitive to radio waves, microwaves, infrared and ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and gamma rays. All these forms of electromagnetic radiation, along with visible light, are emitted by the Sun.

Figure 6</span><br><span class=Author(s): The Open University

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1.1 The Sun at visible wavelengths

The Sun is seen as a blindingly bright, yellow object in the sky. The part of the Sun that you normally see is called the photosphere (meaning ‘sphere of light’); this is best thought of as the ‘surface’ of the Sun, although it is very different from the surface of a planet such as Earth. Its diameter is about 1.4 million kilometres, making the Sun's volume roughly one million times that of the Earth. The photosphere is not solid. Rather, it is a thin layer of hot gaseous mater
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5.3.4 Aye-ayes

Perhaps with good reason, the aye-aye has been dubbed by some ‘the strangest of all primates’ and LoM provides some of the reasons [p. 243]. Little wonder that, as DA points out, the species was first classified as a rodent like them, it has powerful incisor teeth that grow continuously.

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2.5 Tree squirrels

Coevolution also underpins the relationship between many tree squirrels and the trees that house them. The creation of food caches as a ‘winter-larder’ is mutually beneficial, partly because squirrels are sufficiently profligate in their habits to ensure that many stores are overlooked. Stealing by neighbours is so common that such over-provision may be essential – it's not through forgetfulness or lack of skill; grey squirrels appear able to detect nuts buried as deep as 30 cm below th
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2.3 The colugo

In LoM, DA vividly describes one particular evolutionary development associated with tree dwelling – taking to the air [pp. 221–227]. The gliding habit evolved independently in different mammalian lineages and yet the anatomical modifications that allow it are similar in, for example, flying squirrels and the unrelated colugo. In particular, the ‘sail of skin’ [p. 221], technically termed a patagium, stretches between the limbs – and a good deal further in the colugo, acting as an e
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