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5.1 Introduction to the social construction of scientific knowledge

This section explores how scientific knowledge and scientific literacy can be built up through working in communities of practice (groups of people who work together and share a common language). We also look at issues relating to the ideas of subjectivity and objectivity, and at deductive and inductive thinking. Finally, we explore the public understanding of science by examining how society, in wider terms, constructs or influences scientific thinking and understanding.


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3.1 Insect resistance

We will now look briefly at the science underlying the traits introduced into commercial crops, which you explored in Activity 1; a useful place to start is by considering how the property of resistance to insects is acquired by crops.

Insect damage causes huge losses of agricultural crops each year. For example, without co
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1.6.2 Alerts

Online bookshops and some of the major search engines offer ‘Alerts’ services. These work by allowing you to set up a profile once you have registered on their site, and when there are items meeting your criteria you receive an email. The good thing about alerts is that you don’t have to do anything once you have set up your profile. The downside, particularly with alerts services from the search engines, is that given the extent to which internet traffic is on the increase whether new
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Synaesthesia and Citizen Science
Part one. The team examines the neurological condition synaesthesia and the recent Oxford study which sheds light on its genetic basis. Also explored is Galaxy Zoo, an innovative Oxford project which asks the public to help classify galaxies.
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An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the County of Northamptonshire, Volume 1 - Archaeologica
The Royal Commission on Historical Monuments of England survey, covering the archaeological remains of the north east of Northamptonshire. Divided into parishes, this inventory covers remains from the prehistoric period through to post-medieval settlements and earthworks. There is an appendix on Roman roads.
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5.4 The meaning of meaning

I've spoken above as if the whole question of meaning was a simple one. I've used the word itself as if it presented no problems. This certainly isn't true. The whole issue of semantics is a matter of fierce debate among computer scientists and philosophers. What is meaning anyway? How is it possible for anything inside a computer to mean something? Exactly where does meaning return as we go back across the boundary – at the output device or in the human mind? Is the meaning of a pic
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1.3 Requirements gathering

Here we are concerned only with the requirements that relate specifically to the data. Establishing requirements involves consultation with, and agreement among, all the users as to what persistent data they want to store along with an agreement as to the meaning and interpretation of the data elements. The data administrator plays a key role in this process as they overview the business, legal and ethical issues within the organisation that impact on the data requirements.

The data req
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Norse Mythology: The Creation of The World, Part 2 of 2

This episode discusses the conflicts the beings encountered with each other.  Video is a series of pictures and illustrations with musical sound track, beautifully narrated by a male with an English accent.  Part 2 of 2  (5:24)


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3.3 The Earth's internal heat

The occurrence of both volcanoes and hot springs shows that the Earth's interior is hot, producing molten rock at temperatures up to 1250 °C, and also superheated steam. However, these phenomena are mainly confined to several narrow zones along the world's active plate boundaries. Many measurements have now been made of the amount of heat flowing from the Earth's interior. Outside the distinctive zones mentioned above, heat flow varies from 40-120 milliwatts per square metre (mW m−2
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7.1 The subjective experience

Two of the properties of sound that we have examined from an objective stance, frequency and amplitude, have a fundamental importance to our appreciation of sound and music. In this section I want to look more closely at the subjective interpretation of these two properties of sound. I should stress that I am talking about sine-wave sounds in this section. The complex, non-sinusoidal sounds encountered in music add extra layers of complexity to the relationships I am discussing here.

Ke
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Spanish Reading Comprehension for Absolute Beginners #2 - Reading Your Bus Ticket
Learn Mexican Spanish with SpanishPod101.com! Welcome to the Mexican Spanish Reading Comprehension for Absolute Beginners series. In this series, you will start to build up your Mexican Spanish reading skills through lessons focussed on everyday activities like taking the bus or train. You’ll learn how to read tickets, notices in the station, timetables, and more. [...]
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Rights not set

Introduction

Most of us today take photographs for our family albums. The lucky ones among us have also inherited family photographs from the past. These photographs provide another type of record that can offer insights into our family history. But what can they tell us? How can we elicit the information they hold? And how do we analyse or evaluate that information? The purpose of this unit is to suggest how to approach the interpretation of the photographic record.

Please keep referring to your ow
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8.4 When surgery is required

For some cardiovascular disease patients, surgery may be carried out as an emergency procedure or become an inevitable progression, following on from drug therapy. There are various degrees of surgery carried out, ranging from the fairly routine and minorly invasive procedure of coronary angioplasty to the major life-saving heart (or heart and lung) transplant. While it is important to understand all of the detail of surgical procedures and how the cardiac surgical team work together, it is a
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence. This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission
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2.4 Act 5, Scene 2: Faustus's last soliloquy

The play draws to a close with Faustus's final soliloquy, which is supposed to mark the last hour of his life.

Activity

Please reread this speech now, thinking as you read about how Marlowe uses sound effects to heighten the emotional
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Frink - Boar DP178250

*

Boar (1970) by Elisabeth Frink, The Water Gardens, Harlow, Essex. Detail view from the south east. Photographed by Steven Baker 2015.
© Historic England


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Lottery Jackpot Probability
Sal Khan discusses the probability of winning a lottery jackpot in under six minutes. 
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Acknowledgements

The following extracts are from the Study Guide which forms part of an Open University, UK, MA in Education course E841 Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages Worldwide and part of LING 936, 937, 938, units of programs in Applied Linguistics of Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.

These materials were produced and developed jointly by The Open University and Macquarie University. First published 2000, Reprinted 2001.

Copyright © The Open University and Macquarie
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Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

4.4 Are there alternatives to medication?

Another response to bereavement has been to suggest that the bereaved person should go through some form of bereavement counselling. Cruse Bereavement Care is the largest bereavement counselling organisation in the UK.

There are contrasting opinions about the effectiveness of bereavement counselling (also called grief counselling). For many years it had been thought that there was no evidence for the effectiveness of grief counselling, and there was even an opinion that substantial numb
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

Knowledge

  • outline a range of different reasons – social, personal, health, economic, family-based – that cause children to be separated from their families of origin and to live in different settings;

Skills

  • demonstrate the development of key transferable study skills including the ability to summarise arguments, learn from personal experience, and apply theory to issues and dile
    Author(s): The Open University

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