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  • Acid: any substance that donates H+ ions; A solution that contains more H+ than OH- ions
  • Base: any substance that removes free H+ from a solution¬†
  • Alkali: any substance that donates OH- ions into a solution; A solution that contains more OH- than H+ ions
  • pH: the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution
  • Acidic: a solution containing excess H+ ions; a solution with a pH less than 7
  • Alkaline: a solution containing fewer H+ than OH- ions; a solution with a pH greater than 7
  • Neutral: a solution where there are exactly the same number of H+ and OH- ions
  • Dissociation: molecules in solution break apart into ions and then re-form again
  • Buffer: a molecule that can both accept H+ and donate that H+ ions
  • Denaturation: alteration of a molecule's shape and structure leading to loss of function following rearrangement of its atoms
  • Neutralisation: combination of an acid and an alkali to form a salt and water
  • Salt: a molecule formed by the combination of an acid without its free H+ ions and an alkali without its OH- ions


Title/link Description
Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. The CRD undertakes reviews of research about the effects of interventions used In health and social care.
Cochrane library. The Cochrane Library contains high-quality, independent evidence to inform healthcare decision-making. It includes reliable evidence from Cochrane and other systematic reviews.
Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme. The HTA programme works to provide all those who make decisions in the NHS with high-quality information on the costs, effectiveness and broader impact of health care treatments and tests.
Steps in conducting a systematic review. This RLO outlines the five fundamental steps to conducting a systematic review of health care research so as identify, select and critically appraise relevant research.

Books and Journals

Egger M, Davey Smith G, Phillips AN. (1997) Meta-analysis: Principles and Procedures.BMJ;315:1533-1537.

Meta-analysis - Print summary

This RLO covers the use of meta-analysis in summarising data from multiple studies to estimate the benefits of a particular treatment.

Learning outcomes

By completing this resource you should be able to describe:

  • how meta-analysis is used to assess clinical effectiveness
  • how pooling results from multiple studies improves precision.

By completing this resource you should be able to describe:

  • how meta-analysis is used to assess clinical effectiveness
  • how pooling results from multiple studies improves precision.

This resource was developed by:

Jo Leonardi-Bee - content author

Barry Wood, Liz Hilton - developers

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