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|Care process||Care is defined as an integrated holistic process, which is not restricted to the delivery of care activities. Care also contains awareness and identification of care needs, the organisation of care as well as the response of the care receiver (whether his/her needs have been met or not).|
|Care setting||Any place where an individual receives health care (e.g. hospital, care at home, nursing home).|
|Empathy||The ability to understand and share the feelings of others.|
|Ethnicity||Identity related to a specific cultural or national tradition.|
|Health care system||The method by which healthcare is financed, organised and delivered to a population. It includes issues of access (for who and to which services), expenditures and resources (healthcare workers and facilities).|
|Homogeneous||Of the same kind.|
|Informal carer||An informal carer is “a person who provides – usually – unpaid care to someone with a chronic illness, disability or other long lasting health or care needs, outside a professional or formal framework. A family carer is an informal carer who cares for a family member” (Eurocarers, 2019).|
|Mental wellbeing||A state of well-being in which an individual realises his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community.|
|Migration||The movement of persons away from their place of usual residence, either across an international border or within a country.|
|Socio-cultural differences||Differences between people based on social and cultural aspects, e.g. habits, traditions, values, beliefs.|
|Socio-economic differences||Differences in socio-economic status, defined as the social standing or class of an individual or group which is often measured as a combination of education, income and occupation.|
|Super-diversity: additional explanation||Super-diversity is a multi-dimensional concept. It includes but is not limited to ethnic diversity. Each individual is different. There are similarities based on culture, religion and language. However, professionals do not face homogeneous groups. There are differences based on many factors such as gender, age, education, socio-economic status, life experiences, etc. Taking into account the differences and similarities contributes to the provision of qualitative care.|
|Wellbeing||The state of feeling healthy and happy.|
|Admission to hospital||This resource encourages reflection and awareness of cultural differences during a patient’s admission to a hospital ward. It provides an understanding of the importance of individualised nursing care and helps the learner to embrace differences that meet patients needs based on their own values and beliefs.|
|Cultural competence in culturally mixed teams||This resource helps to promote the development of cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity in the context of working in a culturally mixed team.|
|Disabling barriers/inhibitors and empowering cultural communication||This resource will provide you with the opportunity to examine the challenges you may have when developing your cultural competence. It will help you develop cultural awareness and sensitivity for your future nursing practice.|
|Family Caregiving in a Super-Diverse Context||Integrating cultural competences does not necessarily mean having knowledge of specific cultures. It is impossible to know everything. A respectful attitude usually transcends the cultural aspect and allows people to enter into dialogue on the basis of equality and mutual trust. This resource allows the learner to define family care, super-diversity and transcultural competences, whilst discovering how unconscious biases concerning family care and how super-diversity can impact on the care we provide. It focuses on how to support family carers and involve them in super-diverse care settings.|
|Cultural compassion in health care - Who do you see when you look at me?||Responding to individualised nursing care interculturally and transculturally. This resource helps nurses to look and think beyond their initial assumptions of the patient/client in front of them. It encourages nurses to challenge cultural norms in order to adopt individualised meaningful patient experience and outcomes.|
|Access to care of frail community-dwelling older adults in Belgium: A qualitative study||Fret, B., De Donder, L., Lambotte, D., Dury, S., Van der Elst, M., De Witte, N., et al. (2019). Access to care of frail community-dwelling older adults in Belgium: A qualitative study. Primary Health Care Research & Development, 20, e43.|
|Background information about the SOFA-model||Zorg voor beter (2016). Achtergrondinformatie SOFA-model. https://www.zorgvoorbeter.nl/|
|Barriers in access to home care services among ethnic minority and Dutch elderly – A qualitative study||Suurmond, J., Rosenmöller, D. L., el Mesbahi, H., Lamkaddem, M., & Essink-Bot, M.-L. (2016). Barriers in access to home care services among ethnic minority and Dutch elderly – A qualitative study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 54, 23-35.|
|Beyond the tip of the iceberg: Five stages toward cultural competence: Reaching today’s youth||Hanley, J. H. (1999). Beyond the tip of the iceberg: Five stages toward cultural competence: Reaching today’s youth. The Community Circle of Caring Journal,3(2), 9-12.|
|Care and support for older migrant workers||Talloen, D., & Vanmechelen, O. (2018). Zorg en ondersteuning aan oudere arbeidsmigranten [Care and support for older migrant workers]. Geron, 20(2), 6-10.|
|Comparing and contrasting the role of family carers and nurses in the domestic health care of frail older people||Pickard, S., & Glendinning, C. (2002). Comparing and contrasting the role of family carers and nurses in the domestic health care of frail older people. Health & Social Care in the Community, 10(3), 144-150.|
|Comparing super-diversity||Meissner, F., & Vertovec, S. (2016). Comparing super-diversity. In F. Meissner & S. Vertovec (Eds.), Comparing Super-Diversity. Oxon: Taylor & Francis Ltd.0.|
|Convoys of care: Theorizing intersections of formal and informal care||Kemp, C.L., Ball, M.M., & Perkins, M.M. (2013). Convoys of care: Theorizing intersections of formal and informal care. Journal of Aging Studies, 27(1), 15-29.|
|Editorial: Nursing and super-diversity||Culley, L. (2014). Editorial: Nursing and super-diversity. Journal of Research in Nursing, 19(6), 453-455.|
|Exploring the collaboration between formal and informal care from the professional perspective – A thematic synthesis||Hengelaar, A.H., van Hartingsveldt, M., Wittenberg, Y., van Etten-Jamakudin, F., Kwekkeboom, R., & Satink, T. (2018). Exploring the collaboration between formal and informal care from the professional perspective – A thematic synthesis. Health and Social Care in the Community, 26(4), 474-485.|
|Family carers||Eurocarers. (2019). About carers. https://eurocarers.org|
|Informal care in Europe. Exploring formalisation, availability and quality||European Union. (2018). Informal care in Europe. Exploring formalisation, availability and quality. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.|
|Informal care in Europe: Findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health||Verbakel, E., Tamlagsrønning, S., Winstone, L., Fjær, E.L., & Eikemo, T.A. (2017). Informal care in Europe: Findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health. European Journal of Public Health, 27(1), 90-95.|
|Informal carers: who takes care of them?||Hoffmann, F., & Rodrigues, R. (2010). Informal carers: who takes care of them? Policy Brief, April 2010, European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, Vienna.|
|Interplay between formal and informal care||Movisie (2019). Samenspel tussen formele en informele zorg. https://www.movisie.nl/|
|Models of Carers: How Do Social Care Agencies Conceptualise Their Relationship with Informal Carers?||Twigg, J. (1989). Models of Carers: How Do Social Care Agencies Conceptualise Their Relationship with Informal Carers? Journal of Social Policy 18(1):53-66|
|Older migrants in Luxembourg - care preferences for old age between family and professional services||Karl, U., Ramos, A. C., & Kühn, B. (2017). Older migrants in Luxembourg - care preferences for old age between family and professional services. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 43(2), 270-286.|
|Providing informal care in a changing society.||Broese van Groenou, M.I., & De Boer, A. (2016). Providing informal care in a changing society. European Journal of Ageing, 13(3), 271-279.|
|Sofa-model: the different roles of Informal caregivers||Movisie (2019). Sofa-model: de verschillende rollen van mantelzorgers. https://www.movisie.nl/|
|Super-diversity and its implications||Vertovec, S. (2007). Super-diversity and its implications. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(6), 1024-1054.|
|Testing Twigg and Atkin’s typology of caring: a study of primary care professionals’ perceptions of dementia care using a modified focus group method.||Manthorpe, J., LLiffe, S., & Eden, A. (2003). Testing Twigg and Atkin’s typology of caring: a study of primary care professionals’ perceptions of dementia care using a modified focus group method. Health and Social Care in the Community 11(6), 477–485.|
|The mainprinciples of collaboration with informal caregivers||Vlaams Expertisecentrum Mantelzorg (2019). Kernprincipes in het samenwerken met mantelzorgers. https://www.mantelzorgers.be|
|The role of super-diversity in shaping the perception of and services for older migrants||Ciobanu, R.O. (2019). The role of super-diversity in shaping the perception of and services for older migrants. Journal of Aging Studies, 50, 100792.|
|Working with the SOFA-model||In voor Mantelzorg (2019). Tool: Aan de slag met het SOFA-model. https://www.invoormantelzorg.nl/|
By completing this resource you will be able to:
- define family care, super-diversity and transcultural competences
- discover how unconscious biases concerning family care and how super-diversity can impact on the care we provide
- support family carers and involve them in super-diverse care settings
This resource was developed by:
Content Authors: Marc Dhaeze, Deborah Lambotte, Maarten Michiels, Ellen Goossens, Sonia Labeau, Leen Van Landschoot, David De Clercq and Jacqueline Dubois.
Narrator: Jolien Smet
Project Mentor: Doctor Stathis Konstantinidis
Project Developer: Michael Taylor
Special thanks to Cel Multimedia HOGENT Bruno Bevernaegie, Aagje Van Damme, Wouter De Beukelaer, Francis Vlieghe
Funding: TransCoCon project - This work was supported by “TransCoCon: Developing Multimedia Learning for Transcultural Collaboration and Competence in Nursing”, a project funded under the ERASMUS+ Programme, (GA No 2017-1-UK01-KA203-036612).
Developing Multimedia Learning for Trans-cultural Collaboration and Competence in Nursing.
United Kingdom - University of Nottingham, School of Health Sciences: Stathis Konstantinidis, Mary Brown, Carol Hall, Heather Wharrad, Stacy Johnson, Helen Laverty, Mark Pearson, Michael Taylor.
Germany - Fachhochschule Bielefeld University of Applied Sciences - Faculty of Business and Health - Department of Nursing and Health: Inge Bergmann-Tyacke, Annette Nauerth, Simone Neitzel and Katja Makowsky.
Portugal: ESEP - Center for Health Technology and Services Research: Margarida Reis Santos, Candida Koch and Paula Prata.
Belgium: Ho Ghent - University of Applied Sciences and Arts - Faculty of Education, Health and Social Work Marc Dhaeze, Deborah Lambotte, Maarten Michiels, Ellen Goossens, Sonia Labeau, Leen Van Landschoot, David De Clercq and Jacqueline Dubois.
Ireland: St. Angela’s College; A college of NUI Galway - Department of Nursing, Health Science & Disability Studies: Edel McSharry, Denise Healy and Siobhán Healy McGowan.
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