Disabling Barriers/Inhibitors and Empowering Cultural Communication

11. Resources

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Cultural blindnessCultural blindness is the tendency to ignore all differences among cultures, to act as if these differences do not exist and as a result to treat all people the same, when in truth each person is an individual with unique needs.
Cultural brokerageThe process of acting as someone's representative, especially in negotiations, ulture brokerage in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the deliberate use of culturally competent strategies to bridge or mediate between the patient's culture and the biomedical health care system.
Cultural competencyCultural competence is the ability to understand, communicate with and effectively interact with people across cultures. Cultural competence encompasses being aware of one's own world view. developing positive attitudes towards cultural differences. gaining knowledge of different cultural practices and world views.
Cultural conflictCultural conflict is a perceived treat that may arise from a misunderstanding or expectation between clients and nurses when either group is not aware of cultural difference.
Cultural DiversityCultural Diversity refers to the differences between peoples based on a shared ideology and valued set of beliefs, norms, customs, and meanings evidenced in a way of life (American Nurses Association, 1991, in Douglas et al., 2014). Some examples include ethnicity, gender, or socioeconomic status in a situation, institution, or group (Douglas et al., 2014).
Cultural Shock and ethnocentrismCultural shock is the feeling of helplessness, discomfort and disorientation experienced by an individual attempting to understand or effectively adapt to another cultural group that differs from their own practice, values and beliefs.Ethnocentrism is the belief that our own culture or ethnic group is at the centre of the world, is normal or even superior and that others are strange or interior. Ethnocentric nurses are unfamiliar and uncomfortable with anything that is different from their culture
InhibitorSlowing down or preventing a process, reaction, or function.
Intercultural communicationIntercultural communication (or cross-cultural communication) is a discipline that studies communication across different cultures and social groups, or how culture affects communication.
Prejudicerefers to having a deeply held reaction often negative about another group or person regarding their skin colour, ethnic group, religion or social standing with no regard for the worth of the person as an individual.
StereotypingStereotyping is attributing certain beliefs and behaviours about a group or an individual without giving adequate attention to individual difference. E.g. All Asians people are hard working and all people of colour are from Africa.


Admission to hospitalThis resource encourages reflection and awareness of cultural differences during a patient’s admission to a hospital ward. It provides an understanding of the importance of individualised nursing care and helps the learner to embrace differences that meet patients needs based on their own values and beliefs.
Cultural competence in culturally mixed teamsThis resource helps to promote the development of cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity in the context of working in a culturally mixed team.
Family Caregiving in a Super-Diverse ContextIntegrating cultural competences does not necessarily mean having knowledge of specific cultures. It is impossible to know everything. A respectful attitude usually transcends the cultural aspect and allows people to enter into dialogue on the basis of equality and mutual trust. This resource allows the learner to define family care, super-diversity and transcultural competences, whilst discovering how unconscious biases concerning family care and how super-diversity can impact on the care we provide. It focuses on how to support family carers and involve them in super-diverse care settings.
Cultural compassion in health care - Who do you see when you look at me?Responding to individualised nursing care interculturally and transculturally. This resource helps nurses to look and think beyond their initial assumptions of the patient/client in front of them. It encourages nurses to challenge cultural norms in order to adopt individualised meaningful patient experience and outcomes.


Abdulrhman S., Albougami, K. G. P., & Jazi S. A. (2016) Comparison of Four Cultural Competence Models in Transcultural Nursing: A Discussion Paper. International Archives of Nursing and Health Care. 2(4), 2-5.
Andrews, M. M., & Boyle, J. S. (2012) Transcultural concepts in nursing care (6th Edition). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Bach, S. & Grant, A. (2011) Communication and Interpersonal Skills in Nursing (2nd Edition). London: Sage Publications.
Butcher, N., Kanwar, A. & Uvalic-Trumbic, S. (2015) A Basic Guide to Open Educational Resources (OER). Paris: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation.
Culley,L. & Dyson, S. (2001) Ethnicity and Nursing Practice. Macmillan Education UK USA: Elsevier.
Dewit, S.C. & Stromberg, H.D.C. (2017) Medical-Surgical Nursing, Concepts and Practice (3rd Edition). USA: Elsevie.
Garneau, A. & Pepin, J. (2015a) A constructivist theoretical proposition of cultural competence development in nursing. Nurse Education Today. 35, 1062–1068.
Kennedy, S. & Foust, J. (2013) Communication for nurses talking with patients (3rd Edition). UK: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Long, T. (2012) Overview of teaching strategies for cultural competence in nursing students. Journal Cultural Diversity. 19, 102-108.
Lonneman, (2015) Teaching Strategies to Increase Cultural Awareness in Nursing Students. Nurse Educator. 40(6), 285-288.
Narayanasamy A. & White, E. (2005) A review of transcultural nursing. Nurse Education Today. 25, 102-111.
Nurse and Midwifery Board of Ireland (2016) Registration Programmes Standards and Requirements. 4th Edition Dublin: Nursing and Midwifery Board of Ireland.
O' Toole, G. (2008) Communication: Core Interpersonal Skills for Health Care Professionals. Australia: Elsevier.
Papadopoulos, I., Tilki, M. & Taylor, G. (1998) Transcultural Care: A guide for Health Care Professionals. Quay Books: Wilts.
Papadopoulos et al. (2016) Developing tools to promote culturally competent compassion, courage and intercultural communication in healthcare. Journal of Compassionate Health Care. 3(2), 2-10.
Sekerci, Y. G. & Bicer, E.K. (2019) Cultural Sensitivity in Immigrant Patients’ Healthcare: How is it Perceived by Interning Medical and Nursing Students?. International Journal of Caring Sciences. 12(1), 49- 56.
Stanton, S. (2009) Mastering Communication (5th edition). Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Yakar, H.K. & Alpar, S.E. (2018) Intercultural Communication Competence of Nurses Providing Care for Patients from Different Cultures. International Journal of Caring Sciences. 11(3), 17-33.
Zanjani, M.E., Ziaian, T. & Ullrich, S. (2018) Challenges and experiences of overseas qualified nurses adjusting to new roles and health care system: a narrative review of the literature. Singapore Nursing Journal. 45(2), 7-16.

Learning outcomes

By completing this resource you will be able to:

  • develop cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity to the barriers that nurses face and encourage development of cultural competent care through reflection.

This resource was developed by:

Content Authors: Edel McSharry, Denise Healy and Siobhán Healy McGowan.

Narrator: Orla McSharry

Project Mentor: Stathis Konstantinidis

Project Developer: Michael Taylor

Video Production/Development: Edel McSharry, Denise Healy, Siobhán Healy McGowan, Adeyemo, Oluronke Taofeekat (student), Damien Kearns (ICT.Camera).

Actors: MaryEdel McSharry, SiobhánSiobhán Healy McGowan, EuniceAdeyemo, Oluronke Taofeekat (student)

Erasmus+ logo

Funding: TransCoCon project - This work was supported by “TransCoCon: Developing Multimedia Learning for Transcultural Collaboration and Competence in Nursing”, a project funded under the ERASMUS+ Programme, (GA No 2017-1-UK01-KA203-036612).

TransCoCon logo Developing Multimedia Learning for Trans-cultural Collaboration and Competence in Nursing.

United Kingdom - University of Nottingham, School of Health Sciences: Stathis Konstantinidis, Mary Brown, Carol Hall, Heather Wharrad, Stacy Johnson, Helen Laverty, Mark Pearson, Michael Taylor.

Germany - Fachhochschule Bielefeld University of Applied Sciences - Faculty of Business and Health - Department of Nursing and Health: Inge Bergmann-Tyacke, Annette Nauerth, Simone Neitzel and Katja Makowsky

Portugal: ESEP - Center for Health Technology and Services Research: Margarida Reis Santos, Candida Koch and Paula Prata.

Belgium: Ho Ghent - University of Applied Sciences and Arts - Faculty of Education, Health and Social Work Marc Dhaeze, Leen Van Landschoot, Maarten Michels.

Ireland: St. Angela’s College; A college of NUI Galway - Department of Nursing, Health Science & Disability Studies: Edel McSharry, Denise Healy and Siobhán Healy McGowan.

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  • Content authors: Edel McSharry, Denise Healy and Siobhán Healy McGowan.

Contact: helm@nottingham.ac.uk

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