11. Resources

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Using electronic means of communication to send messages which then intimidates or threatens a person.

Early and forced marriage

Early marriage occurs when one or both people are below the age of consent in a country (United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)) who state the "children, given their age are not able to give free, prior and informed consent to their marriage partners or to the timing of their marriage". As a result, it is also often known as child marriage. Typically this is seen across the world as young people under 18 years old, however social norms and customs vary in different countries and can create anomalies in how 'early marriage' is interpreted (UNFPA).

Forced marriage is when one or both people are married without giving a 'free and informed' choice to consent. This can include a person above the age of majority who has diminished responsibility or is assessed as not having the capacity to consent for themselves, (e.g. a person with learning difficulties).

The terms tend to be joined so that 'Early and forced marriage' can then exclude the early marriage that is not forced, e.g. a willing 17 year old, fully capable of making their own informed decision.

United Nations Population Fund (UNPFA) (2018) Child marriage available at: https://www.unfpa.org/child-marriage

Female genital mutilation

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is the term used to include procedures that intentionally cause injury to the the female genital organs.

Gender based violence

Gender based violence (GBV) is a violation of human rights. It can include issues faced and perpetrated by both men and women. Violence perpetrated can include, sexual, physical, psychological social and even financial means of “control”. Women and girls are the vast majority of victims and survivors.

Human trafficking and slavery

Human trafficking and slavery involves recruiting people who are then exploited using violence, threats or coercion. This can include forced labour, sexual exploitation, domestic servitude and child soldiers. It can result in physical, emotional and severe personal trauma, including financial and social issues.

For further information: United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2017) Modern forms of slavery available at: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/slave-route/modern-forms-of-slavery/.


For further reading on types of gender based violence

Bradbury-Jones, C., Clark, M., Paavilainen, E. & Appleton, J. (2017) A Profile of Gender-based Violence Research in Europe: Findings from a Focused Mapping Review and Synthesis. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. DOI: 10.1177/1524838017719234

Recchia, N. & McGarry, J. (2017) 'Don’t Judge Me’: Narratives of living with FGM. International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare. 10(1), 4-13.

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (2013) Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change. Available at: https://www.unicef.org/publications/index_69875.html

World Health Organization (2013) Global and regional estimates of violence against women Prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. Available: https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/violence/9789241564625/en/

For further reading on recognising gender based violence

Bradbury-Jones, C., Taylor, J., Kroll, T. & Duncan, F. (2014) Domestic Abuse Awareness and Recognition among Primary Healthcare Professionals and Abused Women: a qualitative investigation. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 23, 3057-68.

Hegarty, K.L., O’Doherty, L., Astbury, J. & Gunn, J. (2012) Identifying intimate partner violence when screening for health and lifestyle issues among women attending general practice, Australian Journal of Primary Health, 18(4), 327-331.

Hegarty, K.L., Taft, A. & Feder, G. (2008) Violence between intimate partners: working with the whole family. BMJ, 337. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a839

For further reading on talking about gender based violence

Bradbury-Jones, C. (2015) Talking about domestic abuse: crucial conversations for health visitors. Community Practitioner, 88(12), 44-47.

Chang, J. C., Decker, M. R., Moracco, K. E., Martin, S. L., Petersen, R. & Frasier, P. Y. (2005) Asking about intimate partner violence: Advice from female survivors to health care providers, Patient Education and Counselling, 59(2), 141-147.

Tan, E., O’Doherty, L. & Hegarty, K. (2012) GPs' communication skills: A study into women's comfort to disclose intimate partner violence, Australian Family Physician, 41(7), 513-517.

Usta, J., Antoun, J., Ambuel, B. & Khawaja, M. (2012) Involving the health care system in domestic violence: What women want, Annals of Family Medicine, 10(3), 213-220.

For further reading on responding to gender based violence

Bair-Merritt, M.H., Lewis-O’Connor, A., Goel, S., Amato, P., Ismailji, T., Jelley, M., Lenahan, P & Cronholm, P. (2014) Primary care-based interventions for intimate partner violence: A systematic review, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 46(2), 188-194.

Bradbury-Jones, C., Clark, M.T., Parry, J. & Taylor, J. (2014) Development of a practice framework for improving nurses’ responses to Intimate Partner Violence. Journal of Clinical Nursing. DOI: 10.1111/jocn.13276

Feder, G., Hutson, M., Ramsay, J. & Taket, A. (2006) Women Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Expectations and Experiences When They Encounter Health Care Professionals: A Meta-analysis of Qualitative Studies, Archives of Internal Medicine, 166, 22-37.

World Health Organization (2013) Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: WHO clinical and policy guidelines. Available: https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/violence/9789241548595/en/

Some national websites for advice about Gender based violence





New Zealand

The Domestic Violence Helpline, 9am to 11pm, 7 days a week,: 0508-744-633


United Kingdom


Learning outcomes

After completing this gender based violence learning resource you will be able to:

  • describe the different terminology associated with gender based violence and its different forms
  • start to understand the impact that gender based violence has on women’s lives
  • identify some of the common myths about gender based violence and think critically about how to challenge them
  • explore the principles of how to identify and respond to women who experience gender based violence

This resource was developed with some help

We would like to thank the following people who all helped in the development of this resource:

Technical developers: Heather Wharrad, Gill Langmack, Michael Taylor and Lydia Jones

Content reviewers: Thank you to our academic colleagues and students from the participating universities (and beyond!) for providing peer review feedback.

Acknowledgements: We acknowledge Jacqueline Kuruppu, University of Melbourne for her advice and input in developing the resource. Thanks to the participants of the workshops held at Universities of Birmingham and Glasgow for their role in co-designing this resource. Also, to the attendees of the U21 health sciences group meetings in University of Johannesburg in 2017 and University of Melbourne 2018 for informing the development of the resource.

Funding: The development of this resource was funded by Universitas 21 Health Sciences Group.

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