RLO: Referencing your work using Harvard


Direct quotes

This panel shows you how to reference a direct quotation. It should be used in conjunction with the guidelines demonstrated in the referencing tool for the appropriate referencing types used.

Do not confuse quotations with citations. A citation is the practice of referring to the work of other authors in the text of your assignments.

A direct quotation is where you copy the exact words used by an author and place them unaltered directly into your work. Direct quotations need to be in quotation marks as shown in the example here.

In Text Example:

Treatments for cancer "can disrupt economic, social and sexual functioning and frequently cause anxiety and depression, thus diminishing quality of life" (Fallowfield, 1990, p.92).

NOTE: Always put quotation marks around a direct quote and include the page number. Remember, direct quotes should only be used to illustrate a specific point or view. In most cases it is preferable to present information in your own words.

Reference List Example
Fallowfield, L. (1990) The quality of life: the missing measurement in health care. London: Souvenir Press.