Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology

Skin of Colour Resource


Afro-textured hair 

African hair 1

Straightened hair. © DermNetNZ

African hair 2

Twisted hair. © DermNetNZ





Hair care products used by women of African descent: review of ingredients. Douglas A, Onalaja AA, Taylor SC. Cutis. 2020 Apr;105(4):183-188. PMID: 32463850 

From Buns to Braids and Ponytails: Entering a New Era of Female Military Hair-Grooming Standards. May Franklin JM, Wohltmann WE, Wong EB. Cutis. 2021 Jul;108(1):31-35. doi: 10.12788/cutis.0296. PMID: 34397355 Review

Commonly Used Over the Counter Therapies for Hair Growth in Skin of Color: An Evidenced-Based Review. Laughter MR, Anderson JB, Ugonabo N, Mohammodu Z, Sadeghpour M, Shapiro J, Sicco KL. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Jul 1;20(7):726-731. doi: 10.36849/JDD.5689. PMID: 34231986

Lasers for reduction of unwanted hair in skin of color: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Dorgham NA, Dorgham DA.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2019 Oct 6. doi: 10.1111/jdv.15995. [Epub ahead of print]. Systematic review.

Prevalence of cutaneous adverse effects of hairdressing: A systematic review.
Khumalo NP, Jessop S, Ehrlich R.
Arch Dermatol. 2006 Mar;142(3):377-83. Systematic review.

Hair aging in different races and ethnicities.
Maymone MBC, Laughter M, Pollock S, Khan I, Marques T, Abdat R, Goldberg LJ, Vashi NA.
J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2021 Jan;14(1):38-44. Epub 2021 Jan 1. Review.

Clinical recognition and management of alopecia in women of color. 
Raffi J, Suresh R, Agbai O.
Int J Womens Dermatol. 2019 Aug 22;5(5):314-319. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2019.08.005. eCollection 2019 Dec. Review.

Current and emerging treatment strategies for hair loss in women of color.
Okereke UR, Simmons A, Callender VD.
Int J Womens Dermatol. 2019 Jan 23;5(1):37-45. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2018.10.021. eCollection 2019 Feb. Review.

Trichoscopy of dark scalp.
Ocampo-Garza J, Tosti A.
Skin Appendage Disord. 2018 Nov;5(1):1-8. doi: 10.1159/000488885. Epub 2018 Jul 18. Review.

Hair and scalp disorders in adult and pediatric patients with skin of color.
Taylor SC, Barbosa V, Burgess C, Heath C, McMichael AJ, Ogunleye T, Callender V.
Cutis. 2017 Jul;100(1):31-35. Review.

Updates in the understanding and treatments of skin & hair disorders in women of color.
Lawson CN, Hollinger J, Sethi S, Rodney I, Sarkar R, Dlova N, Callender VD.
Int J Womens Dermatol. 2017 Feb 16;3(1 Suppl):S21-S37. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2017.02.006. eCollection 2017 Mar. Review.

The biology and genetics of curly hair.
Westgate GE, Ginger RS, Green MR.
Exp Dermatol. 2017 Jun;26(6):483-490. doi: 10.1111/exd.13347. Review.

Evolution of skin and hair in African Americans.
Kyei A, Hogan S.
Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2016 Dec;35(4):201-206. doi: 10.12788/j.sder.2016.057. Review.

Hair-care practices in African American women: Potential for allergic contact dermatitis.
Stallings A, Sood A.
Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2016 Dec;35(4):207-210. doi: 10.12788/j.sder.2016.058. Review.

Breaking the cycle of hair breakage: Pearls for the management of acquired trichorrhexis nodosa.
Haskin A, Kwatra SG, Aguh C.
J Dermatolog Treat. 2017 Jun;28(4):322-326. doi: 10.1080/09546634.2016.1246704. Epub 2016 Oct 28. Review.

Hair breakage in patients of African descent: Role of dermoscopy.
Quaresma MV, Martinez Velasco MA, Tosti A.
Skin Appendage Disord. 2015 Sep;1(2):99-104. doi: 10.1159/000436981. Epub 2015 Aug 18. Review.

All hairstyles are not created equal: What the dermatologist needs to know about black hairstyling practices and the risk of traction alopecia (TA).
Haskin A, Aguh C.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 Sep;75(3):606-611. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2016.02.1162. Epub 2016 Apr 22. Review.

Clinical and anthropological perspectives on chemical relaxing of afro-textured hair.
Aryiku SA, Salam A, Dadzie OE, Jablonski NG.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Sep;29(9):1689-95. doi: 10.1111/jdv.13028. Epub 2015 Mar 12. Review.

A review of hair product use on breast cancer risk in African American women.
Stiel L, Adkins-Jackson PB, Clark P, Mitchell E, Montgomery S.
Cancer Med. 2016 Mar;5(3):597-604. doi: 10.1002/cam4.613. Epub 2016 Jan 15. Review.

Black women's hair: the main scalp dermatoses and aesthetic practices in women of African ethnicity. 
Tanus A, Oliveira CC, Villarreal DJ, Sanchez FA, Dias MF.
An Bras Dermatol. 2015 Aug;90(4):450-65. doi: 10.1590/abd1806-4841.20152845. Review.

Ethnic hair disorders. 
Lindsey SF, Tosti A.
Curr Probl Dermatol. 2015 Feb;47:139-49. doi: 10.1159/000369414. Epub 2015 Feb 20. Review.

Ethnic considerations in hair restoration surgery. 
Epstein J, Bared A, Kuka G.
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2014 Aug;22(3):427-37. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2014.04.007. Review.

A review of hair care products for black individuals. 
Crawford K, Hernandez C.
Cutis. 2014 Jun;93(6):289-93. Review.

A systematic approach to Afro-textured hair disorders: Dermatoscopy and when to biopsy. 
Yin NC, Tosti A.
Dermatol Clin. 2014 Apr;32(2):145-51. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2013.11.005. Epub 2014 Jan 11. Review.

Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair. 
Rogers NE, Callender VD.
Dermatol Clin. 2014 Apr;32(2):163-71. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2013.12.004. Review.

Hair and scalp disorders in women of African descent: An overview. 
Salam A, Aryiku S, Dadzie OE.
Br J Dermatol. 2013 Oct;169 Suppl 3:19-32. doi: 10.1111/bjd.12534. Review.

Brazilian keratin hair treatment: A review. 
Weathersby C, McMichael A.
J Cosmet Dermatol. 2013 Jun;12(2):144-8. doi: 10.1111/jocd.12030. Review.

Mechanobiology and cell tensegrity: The root of ethnic hair curling? 
Piérard-Franchimont C, Paquet P, Quatresooz P, Piérard GE.
J Cosmet Dermatol. 2011 Jun;10(2):163-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1473-2165.2011.00553.x. Review.

Hair care practices in African-American patients. 
Roseborough IE, McMichael AJ.
Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2009 Jun;28(2):103-8. doi: 10.1016/j.sder.2009.04.007. Review.

Diagnosis and management of primary cicatricial alopecia: Part II. 
Wu WY, Otberg N, McElwee KJ, Shapiro J.
Skinmed. 2008 Mar-Apr;7(2):78-83. Review.

Hair breakage in normal and weathered hair: Focus on the Black patient. 
McMichael AJ.
J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2007 Dec;12(2):6-9. Review.

Relaxing/straightening of Afro-ethnic hair: Historical overview. 
de Sá Dias TC, Baby AR, Kaneko TM, Robles Velasco MV.
J Cosmet Dermatol. 2007 Mar;6(1):2-5. Review.

Medical and surgical therapies for alopecias in black women. 
Callender VD, McMichael AJ, Cohen GF.
Dermatol Ther. 2004;17(2):164-76. Review.

Hair care practices in African American women. 
Quinn CR, Quinn TM, Kelly AP.
Cutis. 2003 Oct;72(4):280-2, 285-9. Review.

Structure and function of ethnic skin and hair. 
Richards GM, Oresajo CO, Halder RM.
Dermatol Clin. 2003 Oct;21(4):595-600. Review.

Hair and scalp disorders in ethnic populations. 
McMichael AJ.
Dermatol Clin. 2003 Oct;21(4):629-44. Review.

Ethnic hair update: past and present. 
McMichael AJ.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Jun;48(6 Suppl):S127-33. Review.

Hair shape of curly hair. 
Bernard BA.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Jun;48(6 Suppl):S120-6. Review.

Current research on ethnic hair. 
Franbourg A, Hallegot P, Baltenneck F, Toutain C, Leroy F.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Jun;48(6 Suppl):S115-9. Review.

Scarring alopecia and the dermatopathologist. 
Sperling LC.
J Cutan Pathol. 2001 Aug;28(7):333-42. Review.

Skin and hair cosmetic issues in women of color. 
Grimes PE.
Dermatol Clin. 2000 Oct;18(4):659-65. Review.

Acquired scalp alopecia. Part II: A review. 
Sullivan JR, Kossard S.
Australas J Dermatol. 1999 May;40(2):61-70; quiz 71-2. Review.

Managing the hair and skin of African American pediatric patients. 
Smith W, Burns C.
J Pediatr Health Care. 1999 Mar-Apr;13(2):72-8. Review.

The ABC's of black hair and skin care. 
Jackson F.
ABNF J. 1998 Sep-Oct;9(5):100-4. Review.

Understanding African-American hair. 
Draelos ZD.
Dermatol Nurs. 1997 Aug;9(4):227-31. Review.

Disorders of the hair and scalp in blacks. 
Scott DA.
Dermatol Clin. 1988 Jul;6(3):387-95. Review.

Hair II. Racial and other genetic variations in hair form. 
Rook A.
Br J Dermatol. 1975 May;92(5):599-600. Review. No abstract available.


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Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology

The University of Nottingham
Applied Health Research Building
University Park, Nottingham

telephone: +44 (0) 115 84 68631
email: cebd@nottingham.ac.uk