Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology
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Skin of Colour Resource


Ethnic hair

African hair 1

Straightened hair. © DermNetNZ

African hair 2

Twisted hair. © DermNetNZ




Prevalence of cutaneous adverse effects of hairdressing: A systematic review.
Khumalo NP, Jessop S, Ehrlich R.
Arch Dermatol. 2006 Mar;142(3):377-83. Systematic review.

Updates in the understanding and treatments of skin & hair disorders in women of color.
Lawson CN, Hollinger J, Sethi S, Rodney I, Sarkar R, Dlova N, Callender VD.
Int J Womens Dermatol. 2017 Feb 16;3(1 Suppl):S21-S37. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2017.02.006. eCollection 2017 Mar. Review.

The biology and genetics of curly hair.
Westgate GE, Ginger RS, Green MR.
Exp Dermatol. 2017 Jun;26(6):483-490. doi: 10.1111/exd.13347. Review.

Evolution of skin and hair in African Americans.
Kyei A, Hogan S.
Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2016 Dec;35(4):201-206. doi: 10.12788/j.sder.2016.057. Review.

Hair-care practices in African American women: Potential for allergic contact dermatitis.
Stallings A, Sood A.
Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2016 Dec;35(4):207-210. doi: 10.12788/j.sder.2016.058. Review.

Breaking the cycle of hair breakage: Pearls for the management of acquired trichorrhexis nodosa.
Haskin A, Kwatra SG, Aguh C.
J Dermatolog Treat. 2017 Jun;28(4):322-326. doi: 10.1080/09546634.2016.1246704. Epub 2016 Oct 28. Review.

Hair breakage in patients of African descent: Role of dermoscopy.
Quaresma MV, Martinez Velasco MA, Tosti A.
Skin Appendage Disord. 2015 Sep;1(2):99-104. doi: 10.1159/000436981. Epub 2015 Aug 18. Review.

All hairstyles are not created equal: What the dermatologist needs to know about black hairstyling practices and the risk of traction alopecia (TA).
Haskin A, Aguh C.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 Sep;75(3):606-611. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2016.02.1162. Epub 2016 Apr 22. Review.

Clinical and anthropological perspectives on chemical relaxing of afro-textured hair.
Aryiku SA, Salam A, Dadzie OE, Jablonski NG.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Sep;29(9):1689-95. doi: 10.1111/jdv.13028. Epub 2015 Mar 12. Review.

A review of hair product use on breast cancer risk in African American women.
Stiel L, Adkins-Jackson PB, Clark P, Mitchell E, Montgomery S.
Cancer Med. 2016 Mar;5(3):597-604. doi: 10.1002/cam4.613. Epub 2016 Jan 15. Review.

Black women's hair: the main scalp dermatoses and aesthetic practices in women of African ethnicity. 
Tanus A, Oliveira CC, Villarreal DJ, Sanchez FA, Dias MF.
An Bras Dermatol. 2015 Aug;90(4):450-65. doi: 10.1590/abd1806-4841.20152845. Review.

Ethnic hair disorders. 
Lindsey SF, Tosti A.
Curr Probl Dermatol. 2015 Feb;47:139-49. doi: 10.1159/000369414. Epub 2015 Feb 20. Review.

Ethnic considerations in hair restoration surgery. 
Epstein J, Bared A, Kuka G.
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2014 Aug;22(3):427-37. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2014.04.007. Review.

A review of hair care products for black individuals. 
Crawford K, Hernandez C.
Cutis. 2014 Jun;93(6):289-93. Review.

A systematic approach to Afro-textured hair disorders: Dermatoscopy and when to biopsy. 
Yin NC, Tosti A.
Dermatol Clin. 2014 Apr;32(2):145-51. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2013.11.005. Epub 2014 Jan 11. Review.

Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair. 
Rogers NE, Callender VD.
Dermatol Clin. 2014 Apr;32(2):163-71. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2013.12.004. Review.

Hair and scalp disorders in women of African descent: An overview. 
Salam A, Aryiku S, Dadzie OE.
Br J Dermatol. 2013 Oct;169 Suppl 3:19-32. doi: 10.1111/bjd.12534. Review.

Brazilian keratin hair treatment: A review. 
Weathersby C, McMichael A.
J Cosmet Dermatol. 2013 Jun;12(2):144-8. doi: 10.1111/jocd.12030. Review.

Mechanobiology and cell tensegrity: The root of ethnic hair curling? 
Piérard-Franchimont C, Paquet P, Quatresooz P, Piérard GE.
J Cosmet Dermatol. 2011 Jun;10(2):163-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1473-2165.2011.00553.x. Review.

Hair care practices in African-American patients. 
Roseborough IE, McMichael AJ.
Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2009 Jun;28(2):103-8. doi: 10.1016/j.sder.2009.04.007. Review.

Diagnosis and management of primary cicatricial alopecia: Part II. 
Wu WY, Otberg N, McElwee KJ, Shapiro J.
Skinmed. 2008 Mar-Apr;7(2):78-83. Review.

Hair breakage in normal and weathered hair: Focus on the Black patient. 
McMichael AJ.
J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2007 Dec;12(2):6-9. Review.

Relaxing/straightening of Afro-ethnic hair: Historical overview. 
de Sá Dias TC, Baby AR, Kaneko TM, Robles Velasco MV.
J Cosmet Dermatol. 2007 Mar;6(1):2-5. Review.

Medical and surgical therapies for alopecias in black women. 
Callender VD, McMichael AJ, Cohen GF.
Dermatol Ther. 2004;17(2):164-76. Review.

Hair care practices in African American women. 
Quinn CR, Quinn TM, Kelly AP.
Cutis. 2003 Oct;72(4):280-2, 285-9. Review.

Structure and function of ethnic skin and hair. 
Richards GM, Oresajo CO, Halder RM.
Dermatol Clin. 2003 Oct;21(4):595-600. Review.

Hair and scalp disorders in ethnic populations. 
McMichael AJ.
Dermatol Clin. 2003 Oct;21(4):629-44. Review.

Ethnic hair update: past and present. 
McMichael AJ.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Jun;48(6 Suppl):S127-33. Review.

Hair shape of curly hair. 
Bernard BA.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Jun;48(6 Suppl):S120-6. Review.

Current research on ethnic hair. 
Franbourg A, Hallegot P, Baltenneck F, Toutain C, Leroy F.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Jun;48(6 Suppl):S115-9. Review.

Scarring alopecia and the dermatopathologist. 
Sperling LC.
J Cutan Pathol. 2001 Aug;28(7):333-42. Review.

Skin and hair cosmetic issues in women of color. 
Grimes PE.
Dermatol Clin. 2000 Oct;18(4):659-65. Review.

Acquired scalp alopecia. Part II: A review. 
Sullivan JR, Kossard S.
Australas J Dermatol. 1999 May;40(2):61-70; quiz 71-2. Review.

Managing the hair and skin of African American pediatric patients. 
Smith W, Burns C.
J Pediatr Health Care. 1999 Mar-Apr;13(2):72-8. Review.

The ABC's of black hair and skin care. 
Jackson F.
ABNF J. 1998 Sep-Oct;9(5):100-4. Review.

Understanding African-American hair. 
Draelos ZD.
Dermatol Nurs. 1997 Aug;9(4):227-31. Review.

Disorders of the hair and scalp in blacks. 
Scott DA.
Dermatol Clin. 1988 Jul;6(3):387-95. Review.

Hair II. Racial and other genetic variations in hair form. 
Rook A.
Br J Dermatol. 1975 May;92(5):599-600. Review. No abstract available.


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Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology

The University of Nottingham
King's Meadow Campus
Lenton Lane
Nottingham, NG7 2NR

telephone: +44 (0) 115 823 1048