Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology

Skin of Colour Resource


Other conditions


Albinism in Africa as a public health issue.
Hong ES, Zeeb H, Repacholi MH.
BMC Public Health. 2006 Aug 17;6:212. Systematic review.

Oculocutaneous albinism and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the head and neck in sub-Saharan Africa. 
Lekalakala PT, Khammissa RA, Kramer B, Ayo-Yusuf OA, Lemmer J, Feller L.
J Skin Cancer. 2015;2015:167847. doi: 10.1155/2015/167847. Epub 2015 Aug 12. Review.


COVID-19 Skin Manifestations in Skin of Colour. Akuffo-Addo E, Nicholas MN, Joseph M. J Cutan Med Surg. 2021 Oct 19:12034754211053310. doi: 10.1177/12034754211053310. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34663122

Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Race in Dermatology. Desai SR, McMichael AJ, Khanna R. Dermatol Clin. 2021 Oct;39(4):569-574. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2021.05.003. Epub 2021 Jul 29. PMID: 34556246 Free PMC article. Review.

Cutaneous amyloidosis


The therapeutic role of lasers in primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis: a systematic review. Ahramiyanpour N, Akbari Z, Sarasyabi MS, Aflatoonian M, Saki N, Shafie'ei M. Lasers Med Sci. 2021 Oct 6. doi: 10.1007/s10103-021-03429-4. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34611800 Review.

Primary Localized Cutaneous Amyloidosis of Keratinocyte Origin: An Update with Emphasis on Atypical Clinical Variants. Hamie L, Haddad I, Nasser N, Kurban M, Abbas O. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2021 Jul 21. doi: 10.1007/s40257-021-00620-9. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34286474 Review. 

Primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis: A systematic treatment review.
Weidner T, Illing T, Elsner P.
Am J Clin Dermatol. 2017 Mar 24. doi: 10.1007/s40257-017-0278-9. [Epub ahead of print]. Systematic review.

Treatment of primary cutaneous amyloidosis with laser: a review of the literature.
Al Yahya RS.
Lasers Med Sci. 2016 Mar 16. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

Cutaneous amyloidosis. 
Borowicz J, Gillespie M, Miller R.
Skinmed. 2011 Mar-Apr;9(2):96-100; quiz 101. Review.

New insight into mechanisms of pruritus from molecular studies on familial primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis. 
Tanaka A, Arita K, Lai-Cheong JE, Palisson F, Hide M, McGrath JA.
Br J Dermatol. 2009 Dec;161(6):1217-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2009.09311.x. Epub 2009 May 26. Review.

The treatment of lichen amyloidosis. A review and a new technique. 
Harahap M, Marwali MR.
Dermatol Surg. 1998 Feb;24(2):251-4. Review.


Dermatosis papulosa nigra


A Systematic Review on the Treatment of Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra. Maghfour J, Ogunleye T. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Apr 1;20(4):467-472. doi: 10.36849/JDD.2021.5555. PMID: 33852246 

Elective treatment of dermatosis papulosa nigra: A review of treatment modalities.
Tran M, Richer V.
Skin Therapy Lett. 2020 Sep;25(4):1-5. Review.

Dermatosis papulosa nigra.
Xiao A, Muse ME, Ettefagh L.2020 Jul 2.
In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020. Review. 



Racial Disparities in Skin Tone Representation of Dermatomyositis Rashes: A Systematic Review. Babool S, Bhai SF, Sanderson C, Salter A, Christopher-Stine L. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2021 Oct 29:keab809. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keab809. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34718435

 Drug reactions

Cutaneous Manifestations of EGFR-Inhibitors in African Americans and Treatment Considerations. Geisler AN, Noor SJ. J Drugs Dermatol. 2020 Sep 1;19(9):894-896. doi: 10.36849/JDD.2020.10.36849/JDD.2020.5275. PMID: 33026750

Pharmacogenomics in Asian Subpopulations and Impacts on Commonly Prescribed Medications. Lo C, Nguyen S, Yang C, Witt L, Wen A, Liao TV, Nguyen J, Lin B, Altman RB, Palaniappan L. Clin Transl Sci. 2020 Sep;13(5):861-870. doi: 10.1111/cts.12771. Epub 2020 Apr 13. PMID: 32100936 Free PMC article. Review.


Eczema & dermatitis

 Quality of life in atopic dermatitis in Asian countries: a systematic review. Huang J, Choo YJ, Smith HE, Apfelbacher C. Arch Dermatol Res. 2021 Jun 4. doi: 10.1007/s00403-021-02246-7. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34086064

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the regional and age-related differences of atopic dermatitis clinical characteristics.
Yew YW, Thyssen JP, Silverberg JI.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018 Oct 1. pii: S0190-9622(18)32645-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2018.09.035. [Epub ahead of print]. Systematic review.

Sociocultural influences on disparities in United States children with atopic dermatitis: A narrative review of the literature.
Croce EA, Rew L.
Compr Child Adolesc Nurs. 2020 Aug 18:1-16. doi: 10.1080/24694193.2020.1799113. Online ahead of print. Review.

Common skin disorders in pediatric skin of color.
Maymone MBC, Watchmaker JD, Dubiel M, Wirya SA, Shen LY, Vashi NA.
J Pediatr Health Care. 2019 Nov - Dec;33(6):727-737. doi: 10.1016/j.pedhc.2019.04.019. Review.

Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of atopic dermatitis in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East: A review.
Lopez Carrera YI, Al Hammadi A, Huang YH, Llamado LJ, Mahgoub E, Tallman AM.
Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2019 Oct 24. doi: 10.1007/s13555-019-00332-3. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

Seborrheic dermatitis in skin of color: Clinical considerations.
Elgash M, Dlova N, Ogunleye T, Taylor SC.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2019 Jan 1;18(1):24-27. Review.

Racial differences in atopic dermatitis.
Brunner PM, Guttman-Yassky E.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2018 Nov 20. pii: S1081-1206(18)31420-0. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2018.11.015. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

A clinician's reference guide for the management of atopic dermatitis in Asians.
Chow S, Seow CS, Dizon MV, Godse K, Foong H, Chan V, Khang TH, Xiang L, Hidayat S, Listiawan MY, Triwahyudi D, Gondokaryono SP, Sutedja E, Diana IA, Suwarsa O, Dharmadji HP, Siswati AS, Danarti R, Soebaryo R, Budianti WK; Asian Academy of Dermatology & Venereology.
Asia Pac Allergy. 2018 Oct 29;8(4):e41. doi: 10.5415/apallergy.2018.8.e41. eCollection 2018 Oct. Review.

Atopic dermatitis in diverse racial and ethnic groups - variations in epidemiology, genetics, clinical presentation, and treatment.
Kaufman BP, Guttman-Yassky E, Alexis AF.
Exp Dermatol. 2018 Feb 19. doi: 10.1111/exd.13514. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

Practical strategies for the diagnosis and assessment of atopic dermatitis.
Eichenfield LF, Stein Gold LF.
Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2017 Mar;36(2 Suppl 2):S36-S38. doi: 10.12788/j.sder.2017.009. Review.

Atopic dermatitis: Racial and ethnic differences.
Mei-Yen Yong A, Tay YK.
Dermatol Clin. 2017 Jul;35(3):395-402. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2017.02.012. Epub 2017 May 6. Review.

Hair-care practices in African American women: potential for allergic contact dermatitis.
Stallings A, Sood A.
Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2016 Dec;35(4):207-210. doi: 10.12788/j.sder.2016.058. Review.

Pityriasis alba - common disease, enigmatic entity: up-to-date review of the literature.
Miazek N, Michalek I, Pawlowska-Kisiel M, Olszewska M, Rudnicka L.
Pediatr Dermatol. 2015 Nov-Dec;32(6):786-91. doi: 10.1111/pde.12683. Epub 2015 Oct 19. Review.

Childhood atopic dermatitis in Taiwan.
Wang IJ, Wang JY, Yeh KW.
Pediatr Neonatol. 2015 Sep 25. pii: S1875-9572(15)00121-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2015.08.005. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

Challenges of identifying eczema in darkly pigmented skin.
Myers J.
Nurs Child Young People. 2015 Jul;27(6):24-8. doi: 10.7748/ncyp.27.6.24.e571. Review.

Atopic dermatitis in different skin types. What is to know?
Torrelo A.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2014 May;28 Suppl 3:2-4. doi: 10.1111/jdv.12480. Review.

Contact dermatitis in blacks.
Berardesca E, Maibach HI.
Dermatol Clin. 1988 Jul;6(3):363-8. Review.

Hidradenitis suppurativa

Hidradenitis suppurativa in skin of colour. Zouboulis CC, Goyal M, Byrd AS. Exp Dermatol. 2021 Jun;30 Suppl 1:27-30. doi: 10.1111/exd.14341. PMID: 34085333 

Hidradenitis suppurativa in East and Southeast Asian populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gotesman RD, Choi C, Alavi A. Int J Dermatol. 2021 Jun 1. doi: 10.1111/ijd.15671. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34075575 Review.

Hidradenitis suppurativa: Disease burden and etiology in skin of color.
Lee DE, Clark AK, Shi VY.
Dermatology. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1159/000486741. [Epub ahead of print]. Review. 



Cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease of the face: a comprehensive literature review and case report. 
Al-Khateeb TH.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015 Sep 25. pii: S0278-2391(15)01285-9. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2015.09.017. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

Horni Nervus

 Symmetric facial macules in an Asian woman.Gaufin M, DiLorenzo A, Deng M, DeWitt C, Cardis M. Dermatol Online J. 2021 Mar 15;27(3):13030/qt65k8874r. PMID: 3386528

Infections & HIV


Risk factors and complications of lower limb cellulitis in Africa: a systematic review.
Tianyi FL, Mbanga CM, Danwang C, Agbor VN.
BMJ Open. 2018 Jul 23;8(7):e021175. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-021175. Systematic review.

The spectrum of HIV-associated infective and inflammatory dermatoses in pigmented skin. 
Motswaledi MH, Visser W.
Dermatol Clin. 2014 Apr;32(2):211-25. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2013.12.006. Epub 2014 Jan 22. Review.

The impact of human immunodeficiency virus-related diseases on pigmented skin types. 
Ameen M.
Br J Dermatol. 2013 Oct;169 Suppl 3:11-8. doi: 10.1111/bjd.12527. Review.

Cutaneous infections in blacks. 
Kpea NT, McDonald CJ.
Dermatol Clin. 1988 Jul;6(3):475-88. Review. 


Palmoplantar keratoderma


Treatment of hereditary palmoplantar keratoderma: a review by analysis of the literature.
Bodemer C, Steijlen P, Hautier JM, O'Toole EA.
Br J Dermatol. 2020 Apr 20. doi: 10.1111/bjd.19144. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

[Keratosis palmoplantaris in black skin].
Bourrat E.
Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2006 Nov;133(11):917-23. Review. French.


Lumpy Skin Disease

A review: Surveillance of lumpy skin disease (LSD) a growing problem in Asia. Khan YR, Ali A, Hussain K, Ijaz M, Rabbani AH, Khan RL, Abbas SN, Aziz MU, Ghaffar A, Sajid HA. Microb Pathog. 2021 Jun 16:105050. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2021.105050. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34146642



Cutaneous lupus erythematosus in skin of color. 
Nozile W, Adgerson CN, Cohen GF.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2015 Apr;14(4):343-9. Review.

Cutaneous lymphoma

Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides: a review of its clinical features and pathophysiology.
Furlan FC, Sanches JA.
An Bras Dermatol. 2013 Nov-Dec;88(6):954-60. doi: 10.1590/abd1806-4841.20132336. Review.

Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in skin of color. 
Hinds GA, Heald P.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009 Mar;60(3):359-75; quiz 376-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2008.10.031. Review.



Race reporting and representation in onychomycosis clinical trials: A systematic review. Chang MJ, Qiu Y, Lipner SR. Mycoses. 2021 Aug;64(8):954-966. doi: 10.1111/myc.13262. Epub 2021 Mar 13. PMID: 33655595 Review.


Papuloerythroderma 2009: two new cases and systematic review of the worldwide literature 25 years after its identification by Ofuji et al. 
Torchia D, Miteva M, Hu S, Cohen C, Romanelli P.
Dermatology. 2010;220(4):311-20. doi: 10.1159/000301915. Epub 2010 Mar 26. Systematic review.



Chronic itch in African Americans: an unmet need. Ingrasci G, El-Kashlan N, Alexis A, Yosipovitch G. Arch Dermatol Res. 2021 Jun 15. doi: 10.1007/s00403-021-02255-6. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34129098 Review.

Pruritus in black skin: Unique molecular characteristics and clinical features.
McColl M, Boozalis E, Aguh C, Eseonu AC, Okoye GA, Kwatra SG.
J Natl Med Assoc. 2020 Jul 31:S0027-9684(20)30140-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jnma.2020.07.002. Online ahead of print. Review.

Itch pathophysiology may differ among ethnic groups. 
Hajdarbegovic E, Thio HB.
Int J Dermatol. 2012 Jul;51(7):771-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.05274.x. Review.

Itch in ethnic populations. 
Tey HL, Yosipovitch G.
Acta Derm Venereol. 2010 May;90(3):227-34. doi: 10.2340/00015555-0867. Review.



Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies multiple novel associations and ethnic heterogeneity of psoriasis susceptibility. 
Yin X, Low HQ, Wang L, Li Y, Ellinghaus E, Han J, Estivill X, Sun L, Zuo X, Shen C, Zhu C, Zhang A, Sanchez F, Padyukov L, Catanese JJ, Krueger GG, Duffin KC, Mucha S, Weichenthal M, Weidinger S, Lieb W, Foo JN, Li Y, Sim K, Liany H, Irwan I, Teo Y, Theng CT, Gupta R, Bowcock A, De Jager PL, Qureshi AA, de Bakker PI, Seielstad M, Liao W, Ståhle M, Franke A, Zhang X, Liu J.
Nat Commun. 2015 Apr 23;6:6916. doi: 10.1038/ncomms7916. Meta-analysis.

Psoriasis in skin of color: Insights into the epidemiology, clinical presentation, genetics, quality-of-life impact, and treatment of psoriasis in non-white racial/ethnic groups.
Kaufman BP, Alexis AF.
Am J Clin Dermatol. 2017 Dec 5. doi: 10.1007/s40257-017-0332-7. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

A review of clinical trials of biologic agents and small molecules for psoriasis in Asian subjects.
Tsai YC, Tsai TF.
G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2016 Feb 18. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.



Rosacea in skin of color: A comprehensive review. Sarkar R, Podder I, Jagadeesan S. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2020 Oct 27. doi: 10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_769_19. Online ahead of print. Review.

Establishing the diagnosis of rosacea in skin of color patients.
Onalaja AA, Lester JC, Taylor SC.
Cutis. 2019 Jul;104(1):38-41. Review.

Patient-focused solutions in rosacea management: Treatment challenges in special patient groups.
Cices A, Alexis AF.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2019 Jul 1;18(7):608-612. Review. 

Global epidemiology and clinical spectrum of rosacea, highlighting skin of color: Review and clinical practice experience.
Alexis AF, Callender VD, Baldwin HE, Desai SR, Rendon MI, Taylor SC.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018 Sep 18. pii: S0190-9622(18)32576-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2018.08.049. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

Review article: Emerging issues in pediatric skin of color, Part 2. Mitchell KN, Tay YK, Heath CR, Silverberg NB. Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Oct 27. doi: 10.1111/pde.14774. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34708446 Review.

 Acne and Rosacea in Skin of Colour. Maruthappu T, Taylor M. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2021 Oct 28. doi: 10.1111/ced.14994. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34709676 Review.





Sarcoidosis: A Clinical Overview from Symptoms to Diagnosis. Sève P, Pacheco Y, Durupt F, Jamilloux Y, Gerfaud-Valentin M, Isaac S, Boussel L, Calender A, Androdias G, Valeyre D, El Jammal T. Cells. 2021 Mar 31;10(4):766. doi: 10.3390/cells10040766. PMID: 33807303 Free PMC article. Review. 

Ulcerative sarcoidosis: a prototypical presentation and review.
Powell E, Rosen T.
Cutis. 2017 Nov;100(5):312-316. Review.

Cutaneous sarcoidosis.
Wanat KA, Rosenbach M.
Clin Chest Med. 2015 Dec;36(4):685-702. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2015.08.010. Epub 2015 Sep 26. Review.

Sarcoidosis: Are there differences in your skin of color patients? 
Heath CR, David J, Taylor SC.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012 Jan;66(1):121.e1-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2010.06.068. Epub 2011 Oct 14. Review.


Wound care

Pressure injuries in people with darker skin tones: A literature review.
Oozageer Gunowa N, Hutchinson M, Brooke J, Jackson D.
J Clin Nurs. 2017 Sep 8. doi: 10.1111/jocn.14062. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

Wound care for patients with darkly pigmented skin. 
Bethell E.
Nurs Stand. 2005 Oct 5-11;20(4):41-9. Review.

Pressure ulcer risk assessment in patients with darkly pigmented skin. 
Scanlon E, Stubbs N.
Prof Nurse. 2004 Feb;19(6):339-41. Review.

Draft definition of stage I pressure ulcers: inclusion of persons with darkly pigmented skin. NPUAP Task Force on Stage I Definition and Darkly Pigmented Skin. 
Henderson CT, Ayello EA, Sussman C, Leiby DM, Bennett MA, Dungog EF, Sprigle S, Woodruff L.
Adv Wound Care. 1997 Sep;10(5):16-9. Review/guidance.


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Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology

The University of Nottingham
Applied Health Research Building
University Park, Nottingham

telephone: +44 (0) 115 84 68631
email: cebd@nottingham.ac.uk