Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology
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Skin of Colour Resource


Skin lightening/skin bleaching


The global prevalence and correlates of skin bleaching: a meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis.
Sagoe D, Pallesen S, Dlova NC, Lartey M, Ezzedine K, Dadzie O.
Int J Dermatol. 2018 Jun 11. doi: 10.1111/ijd.14052. [Epub ahead of print]. Systematic review.

Pitfalls in clinical trials reveal need for well tolerated, more effective depigmenting agents.
Saxena S, Andersen RM, Maibach HI.
J Dermatolog Treat. 2015 Oct;26(5):440-50. doi: 10.3109/09546634.2014.998609. Epub 2015 Feb 11. Systematic review.

The role of systemic treatments for skin lightening.
Juhasz MLW, Levin MK.
J Cosmet Dermatol. 2018 Aug 21. doi: 10.1111/jocd.12747. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

Colourism: a global adolescent health concern.
Craddock N, Dlova N, Diedrichs PC.
Curr Opin Pediatr. 2018 May 8. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000638. [Epub ahead of print]. Revfiew.

Glutathione for skin lightening: a regnant myth or evidence-based verity?
Sonthalia S, Jha AK, Lallas A, Jain G, Jakhar D.
Dermatol Pract Concept. 2018 Jan 31;8(1):15-21. doi: 10.5826/dpc.0801a04. eCollection 2018 Jan. Review.

Skin hyperpigmentation treatment using herbs: A review of clinical evidences.
Kanlayavattanakul M, Lourith N.
J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2018 Apr;20(2):123-131. doi: 10.1080/14764172.2017.1368666. Epub 2017 Aug 30. Review.

Fifty shades of African lightness: A bio-psychosocial review of the global phenomenon of skin lightening practices.
Jacobs M, Levine S, Abney K, Davids L.
J Public Health Afr. 2016 Dec 31;7(2):552. doi: 10.4081/jphia.2016.552. eCollection 2016 Dec 31. Review.

Skin whitening agents: medicinal chemistry perspective of tyrosinase inhibitors.
Pillaiyar T, Manickam M, Namasivayam V.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2017 Dec;32(1):403-425. doi: 10.1080/14756366.2016.1256882. Review.

Facial hyperpigmentation in darker skin types: Part 2.
Bala HR, Rodrigues M.
Dermatology in Practice. 2016 Winter;22(4):105-108. Review.

Intravenous glutathione for skin lightening: Inadequate safety data.
Davids LM, Van Wyk JC, Khumalo NP.
S Afr Med J. 2016 Jul 6;106(8):782-6. doi: 10.7196/SAMJ.2016.v106i8.10878. Review.

Glutathione as a skin whitening agent: facts, myths, evidence and controversies.
Sonthalia S, Daulatabad D, Sarkar R.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2016 Mar 30. doi: 10.4103/0378-6323.179088. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

The practice of skin-bleaching for a cosmetic purpose in immigrant communities. 
Mahé A.
J Travel Med. 2014 Jul-Aug;21(4):282-7. doi: 10.1111/jtm.12106. Epub 2014 Mar 11. Review.

The melanogenesis and mechanisms of skin-lightening agents--existing and new approaches. 
Gillbro JM, Olsson MJ.
Int J Cosmet Sci. 2011 Jun;33(3):210-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2494.2010.00616.x. Epub 2011 Jan 25. Review.

Widespread use of toxic skin lightening compounds: medical and psychosocial aspects. 
Ladizinski B, Mistry N, Kundu RV.
Dermatol Clin. 2011 Jan;29(1):111-23. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2010.08.010. Epub 2010 Oct 13. Review.

The hunt for natural skin whitening agents. 
Smit N, Vicanova J, Pavel S.
Int J Mol Sci. 2009 Dec 10;10(12):5326-49. doi: 10.3390/ijms10125326. Review.

Skin bleaching: highlighting the misuse of cutaneous depigmenting agents. 
Dadzie OE, Petit A.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009 Jul;23(7):741-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-3083.2009.03150.x. Epub 2009 Mar 11. Review.

The use of botanical extracts as topical skin-lightening agents for the improvement of skin pigmentation disorders. 
Zhu W, Gao J.
J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2008 Apr;13(1):20-4. doi: 10.1038/jidsymp.2008.8. Review.

Complications of chronic use of skin lightening cosmetics. 
Olumide YM, Akinkugbe AO, Altraide D, Mohammed T, Ahamefule N, Ayanlowo S, Onyekonwu C, Essen N.
Int J Dermatol. 2008 Apr;47(4):344-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2008.02719.x. Review.

The concept of skin bleaching in Africa and its devastating health implications. 
de Souza MM.
Clin Dermatol. 2008 Jan-Feb;26(1):27-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2007.10.005. Review.

[Complications of cosmetic skin bleaching in Africa]. 
Morand JJ, Ly F, Lightburn E, Mahé A.
Med Trop (Mars). 2007 Dec;67(6):627-34. Review. French.

The safety of hydroquinone: a dermatologist's response to the 2006 Federal Register. 
Levitt J.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Nov;57(5):854-72. Epub 2007 Apr 27. Review.

Skin lightening preparations and the hydroquinone controversy. 
Draelos ZD.
Dermatol Ther. 2007 Sep-Oct;20(5):308-13. Review.

Insight into skin lightening cosmeceuticals for women of color.
Badreshia-Bansal S, Draelos ZD.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2007 Jan;6(1):32-9. Review.

Survey and mechanism of skin depigmenting and lightening agents. 
Parvez S, Kang M, Chung HS, Cho C, Hong MC, Shin MK, Bae H.
Phytother Res. 2006 Nov;20(11):921-34. Review.

[Toxicological aspects and health risks associated with hydroquinone in skin bleaching formula]. 
Kooyers TJ, Westerhof W.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2004 Apr 17;148(16):768-71. Review. Dutch.


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Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology

The University of Nottingham
King's Meadow Campus
Lenton Lane
Nottingham, NG7 2NR

telephone: +44 (0) 115 823 1048