Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology

Skin of Colour Resource


Skin of colour - general reviews

Skin diseases in Asian individuals that you do not want to miss: A selection of unique or relatively more common conditions in Asian populations. Tiao J, Shin G, Al Janahi S, Chung KY, Kim DY, Mun JH, Lee JB, Chung HJ. Clin Dermatol. 2021 Sep-Oct;39(5):879-886. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2021.05.023. Epub 2021 May 18. PMID: 34785016 Review.

Racial/Ethnic Variations in Skin Barrier: Implications for Skin Care Recommendations in Skin of Color. Alexis AF, Woolery-Lloyd H, Williams K, Andriessen A, Desai S, Han G, Perez M, Roberts W, Taylor S. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Sep 1;20(9):932-938. doi: 10.36849/jdd.6312. PMID: 34491028 Review.

Modulating skin colour: role of the thioredoxin and glutathione systems in regulating melanogenesis. Lu Y, Tonissen KF, Di Trapani G. Biosci Rep. 2021 May 28;41(5):BSR20210427. doi: 10.1042/BSR20210427. PMID: 33871027 Free PMC article. Review. 45.

The color of normal: How a Eurocentric focus erases pigmentation complexity. Norton HL. Am J Hum Biol. 2021 Sep;33(5):e23554. doi: 10.1002/ajhb.23554. Epub 2020 Dec 18. PMID: 33337560 Review. 38.

Characteristics of patients seen at a dermatology free clinic, 2017-2020: a retrospective chart review. Hai J, Nguyen M, Kim-Lim P, Wa Cheung K, Jan R, Tartar DM. Dermatol Online J. 2021 Mar 15;27(3):13030/qt1h32g5pj. PMID: 33865291 No abstract available.

Changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels post-vitamin D supplementation in people of Black and Asian ethnicities and its implications during COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review. Vaughan M, Trott M, Sapkota R, Premi G, Roberts J, Ubhi J, Smith L, Pardhan S. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2021 Oct 6. doi: 10.1111/jhn.12949. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34617343 Review.

Ethnic diversity in German dermatology textbooks: Does it exist and is it important? A mini review. Gregersen DM, Elsner P. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2021 Nov;19(11):1582-1589. doi: 10.1111/ddg.14543. Epub 2021 Sep 29. PMID: 34585822 Review.

Assessment of skin of color and diversity and inclusion content of dermatologic published literature: An analysis and call to action. Wilson BN, Sun M, Ashbaugh AG, Ohri S, Yeh C, Murrell DF, Murase JE. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021 Apr 20;7(4):391-397. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2021.04.001. eCollection 2021 Sep. PMID: 34621950 Free PMC article.

African Oils in Dermatology. Ayanlowo O, Cole-Adeife O, Ilomuanya M, Ebie C, Adegbulu A, Ezeanyache O, Odiase O, Ikebudu V, Akanbi B. Dermatol Ther. 2021 Apr 30:e14968. doi: 10.1111/dth.14968. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33928725 

The evolution of human skin pigmentation involved the interactions of genetic, environmental, and cultural variables. Jablonski NG. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2021 Apr 7. doi: 10.1111/pcmr.12976. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33825328 Review. 

African black soap: Physiochemical, phytochemical properties, and uses. Ogunbiyi A, Enechukwu NA. Dermatol Ther. 2021 May;34(3):e14870. doi: 10.1111/dth.14870. Epub 2021 Mar 10. PMID: 33571401 Review.

Common Dermatologic Procedures and the Associated Complications Unique to Skin of Color. Adotama P, Papac N, Alexis A, Wysong A, Collins L. Dermatol Surg. 2021 Mar 1;47(3):355-359. doi: 10.1097/DSS.0000000000002813. PMID: 34328287

Ethnic diversity in German dermatology textbooks: Does it exist and is it important? A mini review. Gregersen DM, Elsner P. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2021 Sep 29. doi: 10.1111/ddg.14543. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34585822 Review.

Health promotion interventions for African Americans delivered in U.S. barbershops and hair salons- a systematic review. Palmer KNB, Rivers PS, Melton FL, McClelland DJ, Hatcher J, Marrero DG, Thomson CA, Garcia DO. BMC Public Health. 2021 Aug 16;21(1):1553. doi: 10.1186/s12889-021-11584-0. PMID: 34399723 Free PMC article.

Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Race in Dermatology. Desai SR, McMichael AJ, Khanna R. Dermatol Clin. 2021 Oct;39(4):569-574. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2021.05.003. Epub 2021 Jul 29. PMID: 34556246 Free PMC article. Review.

Influence of Ethnicities and Skin Color Variations in Different Populations: A Review. Naik PP, Farrukh SN. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2021 Aug 5:1. doi: 10.1159/000518826. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34515229 Review. U

Racial/Ethnic Variations in Skin Barrier: Implications for Skin Care Recommendations in Skin of Color. Alexis AF, Woolery-Lloyd H, Williams K, Andriessen A, Desai S, Han G, Perez M, Roberts W, Taylor S. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Sep 1;20(9):932-938. doi: 10.36849/jdd.6312. PMID: 34491028

Dermatoscopic Features of Pigmentary Diseases in Ethnic Skin. Vinay K, Ankad BS.Indian Dermatol Online J. 2021 Jan 16;12(1):24-33. doi: 10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_561_20. eCollection 2021 Jan-Feb.PMID: 33768020 Free PMC article.

Dermatoscopy of Inflammatory Diseases in Skin of Color. Bhat YJ, Jha AK.Indian Dermatol Online J. 2021 Jan 16;12(1):45-57. doi: 10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_613_20. eCollection 2021 Jan-Feb.PMID: 33768022 Free PMC article. Review.

Parallel discourses: leveraging the Black Lives Matter movement to fight colorism and skin bleaching practices. Van Hout MC, Wazaify M.Public Health. 2021 Mar;192:1-2. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2020.12.020. Epub 2021 Feb 13.PMID: 33592316 Review.

Publication rates on the topic of racial and ethnic diversity in dermatology versus other specialties.
Bray JK, McMichael AJ, Huang WW, Feldman SR.
Dermatol Online J. 2020 Mar 15;26(3):13030/qt094243gp. Systematic review.

Publication rates on the topic of racial and ethnic diversity in dermatology versus other specialties.
Bray JK, McMichael AJ, Huang WW, Feldman SR.
Dermatol Online J. 2020 Mar 15;26(3). pii: 13030/qt094243gp. Systematic review.

A systematic review of the influence of skin pigmentation on changes in the concentrations of vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in plasma/serum following experimental UV irradiation.
Xiang F, Lucas R, de Gruijl F, Norval M.
Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2015 Nov 25;14(12):2138-46. doi: 10.1039/c5pp00168d. Systematic review.

African Black Soap; Physiochemical, phytochemical properties and uses.
Ogunbiyi A, Enechukwu NA.
Dermatol Ther. 2021 Feb 11:e14870. doi: 10.1111/dth.14870. Online ahead of print. Review.

Did human evolution in skin of color enhance the TEWL barrier?
Peer RP, Burli A, Maibach HI.
Arch Dermatol Res. 2021 Feb 26. doi: 10.1007/s00403-021-02197-z. Online ahead of print. Review.

Unraveling the roles of vitamin D status and melanin during Covid 19 (Review).
Sidiropoulou P, Docea AO, Nikolaou V, Katsarou MS, Spandidos DA, Tsatsakis A, Calina D, Drakoulis N.
Int J Mol Med. 2021 Jan;47(1):92-100. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2020.4802. Epub 2020 Nov 30. Review.

A review of ethnomedicinal uses of shea butter for dermatoses in sub-Saharan Africa.
Pearl Ugwu-Dike BS, Nambudiri VE.
Dermatol Ther. 2021 Jan 21. doi: 10.1111/dth.14786. Online ahead of print. Review.

Avoidance of vitamin D deficiency to slow the COVID-19 pandemic.
Kohlmeier M.
BMJ Nutr Prev Health. 2020 May 20;3(1):67-73. doi: 10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000096. eCollection 2020. Review.

Dermatology training in Africa: Successes and challenges.
Mosam A, Todd G.
Dermatol Clin. 2021 Jan;39(1):57-71. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2020.08.006. Review.

Cutaneous manifestations of EGFR-inhibitors in African Americans and treatment considerations.
Geisler AN, Noor SJ.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2020 Sep 1;19(9):894-896. doi: 10.36849/JDD.2020.10.36849/JDD.2020.5275. Review.

Skin colour and vitamin D: An update.
Hanel A, Carlberg C.
Exp Dermatol. 2020 Jul 3. doi: 10.1111/exd.14142. Online ahead of print. Review.

Laser Fitzpatrick Skin Type Recommendations.
Sharma AN, Patel BC.
StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan. Review.

The effects of climate change on human health in Africa, a dermatologic perspective: a report from the International Society of Dermatology Climate Change Committee.
Coates SJ, Enbiale W, Davis MDP, Andersen LK.
Int J Dermatol. 2020 Jan 22. doi: 10.1111/ijd.14759. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

Common skin disorders in pediatric skin of color.
Maymone MBC, Watchmaker JD, Dubiel M, Wirya SA, Shen LY, Vashi NA.
J Pediatr Health Care. 2019 Nov-Dec;33(6):727-737. doi: 10.1016/j.pedhc.2019.04.019. Review.

Controversies in medicine: the role of calcium and vitamin D supplements in adults.
Reid IR, Bolland MJ.
Med J Aust. 2019 Nov;211(10):468-473. doi: 10.5694/mja2.50393. Epub 2019 Nov 3. Review.

The vitamin D-folate hypothesis in human vascular health.
Wolf ST, Kenney WL.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2019 Jul 17. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00136.2019. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

The genetics of human skin and hair pigmentation.
Pavan WJ, Sturm RA.
Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 2019 May 17. doi: 10.1146/annurev-genom-083118-015230. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

Maternal risk factors and newborn infant vitamin D status: a scoping literature review.
Sotunde OF, Laliberte A, Weiler HA.
Nutr Res. 2019 Mar;63:1-20. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2018.11.011. Epub 2018 Dec 7. Review.

Photoaging and photoprotection in United States Hispanic population.
Zheng Q, Wangari-Talbot J, Bouez C, Verschoore M.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2019 Mar 1;18(3s):s121-123. Review.

Impact of high latitude, urban living and ethnicity on 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: A need for multidisciplinary action?
Mendes MM, Darling AL, Hart KH, Morse S, Murphy RJ, Lanham-New SA.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Jan 2. pii: S0960-0760(18)30541-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2018.12.012. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

A narrative review of the role of foods as dietary sources of vitamin D of ethnic minority populations with darker skin: The underestimated challenge.
Guo J, Lovegrove JA, Givens DI.
Nutrients. 2019 Jan 3;11(1). pii: E81. doi: 10.3390/nu11010081. Review.

[Skin Diseases in Africans].
Marcos-Pinto A, Ortins-Pina A, Borges-Costa J.
Acta Med Port. 2018 Jun 6;31(9):501-508. doi: 10.20344/amp.10287. Epub 2018 Sep 28. Review. Portuguese.

Clinical and biological characterization of skin pigmentation diversity and its consequences on UV impact.
Del Bino S, Duval C, Bernerd F.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Sep 8;19(9). pii: E2668. doi: 10.3390/ijms19092668. Review.

Characteristics and management of Asian skin.
Chan IL, Cohen S, da Cunha MG, Maluf LC.
Int J Dermatol. 2018 Jul 24. doi: 10.1111/ijd.14153. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

Traditional and ethnobotanical dermatology practices in Africa.
Dlova NC, Ollengo MA.
Clin Dermatol. 2018 May - Jun;36(3):353-362. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2018.03.009. Epub 2018 Mar 10. Review.

Colourism: a global adolescent health concern.
Craddock N, Dlova N, Diedrichs PC.
Curr Opin Pediatr. 2018 May 8. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000638. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

Personalized skincare: from molecular basis to clinical and commercial applications.
Markiewicz E, Idowu OC.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2018 Apr 11;11:161-171. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S163799. eCollection 2018. Review.

Diversity in dermatology residency programs.
Van Voorhees AS, Enos CW.
J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2017 Oct;18(2):S46-S49. doi: 10.1016/j.jisp.2017.07.001. Review.

The importance of patient registries in skin of color.
Hinojosa JA, Pandya AG.
J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2017 Oct;18(2):S31-S33. doi: 10.1016/j.jisp.2017.01.002. Review.

Ethnicity and aging skin.
Alexis AF, Obioha JO.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2017 Jun 1;16(6):s77-s80.

Updates in the understanding and treatments of skin & hair disorders in women of color.
Lawson CN, Hollinger J, Sethi S, Rodney I, Sarkar R, Dlova N, Callender VD.
Int J Womens Dermatol. 2017 Feb 16;3(1 Suppl):S21-S37. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2017.02.006. eCollection 2017 Mar. Review.

Dermatologic conditions in patients of color who are pregnant.
Jeon C, Agbai O, Butler D, Murase J.
Int J Womens Dermatol. 2017 Mar 24;3(1):30-36. doi: 10.1016/j.ijwd.2017.02.019. eCollection 2017 Mar. Review.

Skin of colour: Characteristics and disease.
Zaidi Z.
J Pak Med Assoc. 2017 Feb;67(2):292-299. Review.

Diversity in the dermatology workforce.
Hinjosa JA, Pandya AG.
Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2016 Dec;36(4):242-245. doi: 10.12788/j.sder.2016.063. Review.

Common conditions in skin of color.
Hadi A, Elbuluk N.
Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2016 Dec;35(4):184-190. doi: 10.12788/j.sder.2016.065. Review.

Evolution of skin and hair in African Americans.
Kyei A, Hogan S.
Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2016 Dec;35(4):201-206. doi: 10.12788/j.sder.2016.057. Review.

Skin color and pigmentation in ethnic skin.
Visscher MO.
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2017 Feb;25(1):119-125. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2016.08.011. Review.

Skin pigmentation and pigmentary disorders: focus on epidermal/dermal cross-talk.
Bastonini E, Kovacs D, Picardo M.
Ann Dermatol. 2016 Jun;28(3):279-89. doi: 10.5021/ad.2016.28.3.279. Epub 2016 May 25. Review.

Ethnic dermatology: a new series to guide practice.
Dadzie OE.
Dermatology in Practice. 2016 Spring;22(1):12-13. Review.

Aging differences in ethnic skin.
Vashi NA, de Castro Maymone MB, Kundu RV.
J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2016 Jan;9(1):31-8. Review.

Dermatoses due to Indian cultural practices. 
Gupta D, Thappa DM.
Indian J Dermatol. 2015 Jan-Feb;60(1):3-12. doi: 10.4103/0019-5154.147778. Review.

Follicular and scarring disorders in skin of color: presentation and management. 
Madu P, Kundu RV.
Am J Clin Dermatol. 2014 Aug;15(4):307-21. doi: 10.1007/s40257-014-0072-x. Review.

The evolution of skin pigmentation and hair texture in people of African ancestry. 
Jablonski NG, Chaplin G.
Dermatol Clin. 2014 Apr;32(2):113-21. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2013.11.003. Epub 2013 Dec 20. Review.

Was skin cancer a selective force for black pigmentation in early hominin evolution? 
Greaves M.
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Feb 26;281(1781):20132955. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.2955. Print 2014 Apr 22. Review.

Variations in skin colour and the biological consequences of ultraviolet radiation exposure. 
Del Bino S, Bernerd F.
Br J Dermatol. 2013 Oct;169 Suppl 3:33-40. doi: 10.1111/bjd.12529. Review.

Dermatologic conditions in skin of color: part I. Special considerations for common skin disorders. 
Kundu RV, Patterson S.
Am Fam Physician. 2013 Jun 15;87(12):850-6. Review.

Dermatologic conditions in skin of color: part II. Disorders occurring predominately in skin of color. 
Kundu RV, Patterson S.
Am Fam Physician. 2013 Jun 15;87(12):859-65. Review.

Cultural competence and unique concerns in patients with ethnic skin. 
Taylor SC, Heath C.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2012 Apr;11(4):460-5. Review.

Dermatology for the elderly: an Indian perspective. 
Verma SB.
Clin Dermatol. 2011 Jan-Feb;29(1):91-6. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2010.07.012. Review.

Managing common dermatoses in skin of color. 
Coley MK, Alexis AF.
Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2009 Jun;28(2):63-70. doi: 10.1016/j.sder.2009.04.006. Review.

The Asian dermatologic patient: review of common pigmentary disorders and cutaneous diseases. 
Ho SG, Chan HH.
Am J Clin Dermatol. 2009;10(3):153-68. doi: 10.2165/00128071-200910030-00002. Review.

Human pigmentation variation: evolution, genetic basis, and implications for public health. 
Parra EJ.
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007;Suppl 45:85-105. Review.

Natural considerations for skin of color. 
Baumann L, Rodriguez D, Taylor SC, Wu J.
Cutis. 2006 Dec;78(6 Suppl):2-19. Review.

[Adaptation-related black skin disorders in metropolitan France]. 
Fitoussi C.
Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2006 Nov;133(11):871-5. Review. French. No abstract available.

[Black skin: an anthropologist's journey between biology and sociology]. 
Bonniol JL.
Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2006 Nov;133(11):853-8. Review. French. No abstract available.

[Presenting disorders in black skin dermatology]. 
Petit A.
Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2006 Nov;133(11):861-9. Review. French. No abstract available.

Enhancing the care and treatment of skin of color, part 2: understanding skin physiology. 
Taylor SC.
Cutis. 2005 Nov;76(5):302-6. Review.

Enhancing the care and treatment of skin of color, part 1: The broad scope of pigmentary disorders. 
Taylor SC.
Cutis. 2005 Oct;76(4):249-55. Review.

Common dermatoses in moderately pigmented skin: uncommon presentations. 
Abdel-Naser MB, Verma SB, Abdallah MA.
Clin Dermatol. 2005 Sep-Oct;23(5):446-56. Review.

Cutaneous diseases in Asians. 
Lee CS, Lim HW.
Dermatol Clin. 2003 Oct;21(4):669-77. Review.

Cutaneous diseases in Native Americans. 
Cornelison RL Jr.
Dermatol Clin. 2003 Oct;21(4):699-702. Review.

Epidemiology of skin diseases in ethnic populations. 
Taylor SC.
Dermatol Clin. 2003 Oct;21(4):601-7. Review.

Pigmentary disorders in ethnic skin. 
Halder RM, Nandedkar MA, Neal KW.
Dermatol Clin. 2003 Oct;21(4):617-28, vii. Review.

Ethnic skin disorders overview. 
Halder RM, Nootheti PK.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Jun;48(6 Suppl):S143-8. Review.

Ethnic skin: overview of structure and function. 
Berardesca E, Maibach H.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Jun;48(6 Suppl):S139-42. Review.

[Characteristics of genetically pigmented skins]. 
Morand JJ, Lightburn E.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2003 Jan;96(5):394-400. Review. French.

Racial (ethnic) differences in skin properties: the objective data. 
Wesley NO, Maibach HI.
Am J Clin Dermatol. 2003;4(12):843-60. Review.

Defining skin of color. 
Taylor SC, Cook-Bolden F.
Cutis. 2002 Jun;69(6):435-7. Review.

Skin of color: biology, structure, function, and implications for dermatologic disease. 
Taylor SC.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002 Feb;46(2 Suppl Understanding):S41-62. Review.

[Dry skin and black skin: what are the facts?]. 
Mahé A.
Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2002 Jan;129(1 Pt 2):152-7. Review. French.

Identifying disease in pigmented skin. 
Short K, Higgins E.
Practitioner. 2001 Nov;245(1628):925-30. Review. No abstract available.

Skin colour assessment in safety testing of cosmetics. An overview. 
Hermanns JF, Piérard-Franchimont C, Piérard GE.
Int J Cosmet Sci. 2000 Feb;22(1):67-71. doi: 10.1046/j.1467-2494.2000.00021.x. Review.

A review of cutaneous disease in African-American patients. 
McMichael AJ.
Dermatol Nurs. 1999 Feb;11(1):35-6, 41-7. Review.

The ABC's of black hair and skin care. 
Jackson F.
ABNF J. 1998 Sep-Oct;9(5):100-4. Review.

Diagnosis in racially pigmented skin. 
Child F.
Practitioner. 1998 Apr;242(1585):292-6. Review. No abstract available.

Racial differences in skin pathophysiology. 
Berardesca E, Maibach H.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996 Apr;34(4):667-72. Review.

Pigmentary problems in the tropics. 
Dominguez-Soto L, Hojyo-Tomoka T, Vega-Memije E, Arenas R, Cores-Franco R.
Dermatol Clin. 1994 Oct;12(4):777-84. Review.

[Histology and physiology of black skin]. 
La Ruche G, Cesarini JP.
Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1992;119(8):567-74. Review. French.

Sensitive and ethnic skin. A need for special skin-care agents? 
Berardesca E, Maibach HI.
Dermatol Clin. 1991 Jan;9(1):89-92. Review.

Pigmentary disorders in black skin. 
Kenney JA Jr.
Clin Dermatol. 1989 Apr-Jun;7(2):1-10. Review. No abstract available.

Pigmentary disorders in oriental skin. 
Jimbow M, Jimbow K.
Clin Dermatol. 1989 Apr-Jun;7(2):11-27. Review.

Cutaneous reaction patterns in blacks. 
McLaurin CI.
Dermatol Clin. 1988 Jul;6(3):353-62. Review.

Structure and function of the skin. Are there differences between black and white skin? 
McDonald CJ.
Dermatol Clin. 1988 Jul;6(3):343-7. Review.

Skin variations in blacks. 
Henderson AL.
Cutis. 1983 Oct;32(4):376-7. Review.

Unusual patterns of common dermatoses in blacks. 
McLaurin CI.
Cutis. 1983 Oct;32(4):352-5, 358-60. Review.


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Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology

The University of Nottingham
Applied Health Research Building
University Park, Nottingham

telephone: +44 (0) 115 84 68631
email: cebd@nottingham.ac.uk