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José María de España

Other names/titles:
Gender: M
Ethnic origin: White

Biographical details

From La Guaira, Venezuela, he married Josefa Joaquina Sánchez in 1783. They had 8 children.
In June 1797 he led the Gual-España revolt against the Spaniards with Juan Bautista Picornell, Manuel Gual and Manuel Ayala, cousin of José Ayala (who had been involved with Nariño). His wife and sister were also involved. He was comfortably off and owned slaves. His wife encouraged one of their slaves, José to incite a rebellion in Naguatá and the plan was to reunite with others and march on Caracas. But José was discovered and España and his wife were captured in Naguatá and imprisoned. He was taken a Caracas prison on 6 May 1799 and hung. His head was cut off and his body quartered and displayed at La Guaira, the Caracas entrance, Macuto , Vigia de Chacon, and Quitacalzón, a river above La Guaira, and La Cumbre. (Monsalve, 17-19)

He was teniente de justicia mayor of Macuto in 1794. (Díaz, 53)

Life Events

Married 1783He married Josefa Joaquina Sánchez.
Other 1794He was teniente de justicia mayor of Macuto.
Other 1797In June 1797 he led the Gual-España revolt.
Died 1799He was hung and quartered for his part in the Gual-España rebellion.


N.A., (1964), Heroínas venezolanas

Lavrin, Asunción, (1978), Latin American Women: Historical Perspectives; Contributions in Women's Studies, No.3.

Monsalve, José D, (1926), Mujeres de la independencia

Díaz, Arlene J., (2004), Female Citizens, Patriarchs and the Law in Venezuela, 1796-1904

Davies, Catherine, Brewster, Claire and Owen, Hilary, (2006), South American Independence. Gender, Politics, Text


There is no writing by this subject in the database.


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Gendering Latin American Independence

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