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Bernardo Monteagudo

Other names/titles:
Gender: M
Ethnic origin: Mulatto/a

Biographical details

Born in Tucumán, Argentina, in 1785. He was one of the leaders of Independence who went to Peru with San Martín and supported the monarchy in Peru. He founded the all-male Sociedad Patriótica de Lima (1822), its secretary was Francisco Javier Maríategui. Republicans formed a minority in it. El Sol del Perú was its organ of expression; it was published from March to June 1822. It closed as San Martín left Guayaquil and opposition against Monteagudo grew. He was an enemy of José Faustino Sánchez Carríon. He was assassinated in San Juan de Dios de Lima in 1825. (Romero de Valle, 214, 302; Martínez Riaza, 50-51)

The Carrera family was accused of his assassination. (Knaster, 504)

He wrote for the Lima publication El Pacificador del Perú in 1821 and began La Gaceta de Buenos Aires. Like San Martín, he was in favour of a united America. (Martínez Riaza, 46, 67.)

He is described by Lynch as close to San Martín, and pro-monarchy, but not popular with Peruvians. He was assassinated in Lima. (Lynch, xviii)

He was in favour of social equality and the rights of man. He founded the Sociedad Patriótica. His articles led to the closing down of La Gaceta, but Monteagudo then set up El Mártir o Libre. He eventually had to leave Buenos Aires, going to Chile where he joined the independence soldiers. In 1821 he was head of the department of War in Peru. He founded another Sociedad Patriotica in Lima. (Coester, 48-49)

He read and studied Voltaire, Rousseau, Raynal, Locke, Filangieri and others in Córdoba University. (Chiaramonte, 358)

Described by Clissold as a mulatto, "the evil genius of the revolution" who "combined in his person the destructive elements of the terrorist with utter ruthlessness in the pursuit of power and the indulgence of his own passions". He left a "trail of crime and assassinations" in Argentina, Chile and Peru. He ordered the executions of Juan José and Luis Carrera in 1819 to gain the favour of San Martín and O'Higgins while "satisfying his own sadistic lusts". (Clissold, 168)

Life Events

Born 1785He was born in Tucumán, Argentina.
Other 1819He ordered the executions of Juan José and Luis Carrera in Mendoza.
Other 1821He was head of the department of war.
Other 1822He founded the Sociedad Patriótica de Lima.
Died 1825He was assassinated in San Juan de Dios de Lima, in 1825.


Knaster, Meri, (1977), Women in Spanish America: An Annotated Bibliography from Pre-Conquest to Contemporary Times

Romero de Valle, Emilia, (1966), Diccionario manual de literatura peruana y materias afines

Martínez Riaza, Ascención, (1985), La prensa doctrina en la independencia de Perú, 1811-1824

Lynch, John, (1986), The Spanish American Revolutions 1808-1826

Coester, Alfred, (1919), The Literary History of Spanish America

Halperín-Donghi, Tulio, (1972), Historia argentina, de la conquista a la independencia

Clissold, Stephen, (1968), Bernardo O'Higgins and the Independence of Chile


There is no writing by this subject in the database.


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