School of Health Sciences
  • Print

Image of Gary Adams

Gary Adams

Associate Professor and Reader in Applied Health and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences


Expertise Summary

Polysaccharides (Glycans) and proteins are important constituents to diet, nutrition and health. Diet and nutrition are increasingly becoming recognized as modifiable contributors to the development and progression of disease. Pharmacological management remains the mainstay for the treatment of, for example, diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder that results in glycaemic aberrations. Gary and his Team investigate the structural, functional and physico-chemical properties of these polysaccharides and proteins and the interactions, therein, in order to establish the tangible health benefits these naturally-derived molecules offer and how newly designed delivery systems for these constituents can offer improved bioavailability.

Fellow Awards

Fellow of Royal Society of Chemistry (2016)

Fellow of Royal Society of Biology (2016)

Fellow of Higher Education Academy (2016)

Visiting Positions

  • Visiting Professor at University of Abant Izzet Baysal, Turkey
  • Visiting Professor at Nile Hospital, Cairo, Egypt



  • Professor Steve Howdle - School of Chemistry
  • Professors Stephen Harding - School of Biosciences
  • Professor Arthur Rowe - School of Biosciences
  • Dr Tim Constantin, School of Life Sciences
  • Dr Paul Morgan - School of Medicine

Nottingham University Hospital Trust

  • Dr Peter Mansell
  • Dr Simon Page
  • Dr Tasso Gaziz


  • Professor Naomi Chayen - Imperial College, London
  • Dr Roger James - Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester
  • Dr Alan Liddle, Consultant Intensivist, Lincolnshire Hospital NHS Trust
  • Dr Sancho Rodríguez Villar - Westminster Hospital


  • Professor Pedro Fardim, Chemical Engineering for Health & Care, University of Leuven Belgium
  • Professor Maria Helena Melo Lima, University of Campinas, Brazil
  • Professor Thomas Heinze, Friedrich Schiller University Germany
  • Professor Martin Hagger, Curtin University, Perth Australia
  • Professor Seter Siziya, University of Zambia
  • Professor Samil Kök, University of Abant Izzet Baysal, Turkey
  • Dr Mohammad El-Husseiny, Nile Hospital, Cairo, Egypt

PhD Students

  • Rocio Maria Fernandez Mendez
  • Muna Alshammari
  • Shahwar Imran Jiwani
  • Fahad Almutairi
  • Tayyibe Erten
  • Qushmua Alzahrani
  • Jennifer Wakefield
  • Vlad Dinu
  • Nawal Ozaybi

Recent Research Supervisees

  • Yuxin Cui: Using biomimetic templates to control pancreatic stem cell differentiation
  • Lelia Mecif: Polyelectrolyte multilayer self assembly system for cell encapsulation
  • Nan Wang: In-vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into pancreatic insulin producing cells
  • David Besong: The hydrodynamic properties of IgG1 glycoforms in comparison with pure protein and carbohydrate assemblies
  • Richard Gillis: The Hydrodynamic characterisation of polysaccharide-protein interactions
  • Aisha Aris: Predicting self-care practices and glycaemic control using health belief model (hbm) in patients with insulin-treated diabetes in malaysia

Postdoctoral Research Fellows

  • Richard Gillis: Postdoctoral Research Fellow
  • Shahwar Jiwani: Postdoctoral Research Fellow

Visiting Researchers

  • Professor Maria Helena Melo Lima - University of Campinas
  • Dr Priscila Peruzzo Apolinario - University of Campinas
  • Professor Samil Kok : Visiting Fellow, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey

Teaching Summary


  • BSc (LBR) Dissertation supervisor
  • MNursSci Dissertation supervisor
  • PhD supervisor
  • Director MNurSci (2012- 2015)
  • Admissions Tutor, MNurSci (2006- 2012)
  • Examination Officer (MN/MNursSci) in 2001-2003)
  • Contemporary Management in Diabetes
  • Dissertation Supervisor for students undertaking:
  • MSc in Advanced Nursing Practice
  • Master of Nursing Science (Hons)
  • Masters in Applied Biotechnology (ABT)
  • Masters in Applied Biopharmaceutical Biotechnology and Entrepreneurship (ABBE)
  • PhD

Research Summary

My current research is focused on how key nutritional components such as proteins, polysaccharides (Glycans and their conjugates) and natural ingredients play key roles in and can impact on Health… read more

Selected Publications

Co-Director of the National Centre for Macromolecular Hydrodynamics (NCMH) and Associate Professor of Diabetes Health and Therapeutics, Dr. Gary Adams recently featured on BBC East Midlands Today describing the work on the potential of pumpkin macromolecules in the fight against Diabetes

Books: An Introduction to Polysaccharide Biotechnology, Second Edition

Current Research

My current research is focused on how key nutritional components such as proteins, polysaccharides (Glycans and their conjugates) and natural ingredients play key roles in and can impact on Health and disease. By applying novel analytical strategies, we have an improved understanding of the science and technology, which underpins the structure, function and physico-chemical nature of these constituents in cases such as diabetes and other health-related diseases. This has enabled our Group to create formulation strategies to develop new medicines and biomedical devices.

Our research group (3 post-doctoral researchers and 8 PhD students) studies the development of new technologies and improved analytical methods with a view to exploiting novel manufacturing routes for formulation manufacture and thereby producing new products capable of improving diet, health and disease. In addition, our research group is also examining Smart materials, both synthetic and natural, in which current therapies in maintaining sugar levels can be improved for enhanced nutritional, physiological, biochemical and clinical benefit.

Current Projects

* A new 5 year study (funded by IDDT) examines the relationship between synthetic insulin analogues, neurological and physiological function and Quality of Life in patients with diabetes

* The use of naturally-produced regenerative biomaterials in wound healing

* A new 3-year study has started (funded by BBSRC Diet & Health Research Industry Club - DRINC) on beta-glucan interactions responsible for cholesterol lowering

* Glycon (funded by Nottingham University Hospitals Trust) investigates Glycaemic Control Methods of Stress Hyperglycaemia Implemented In Intensive Care Units

* The MARIA Pilot Study (funded by IDDT) examined the use of animal and synthetic insulins in insulin dependence

PhD Supervision

  • Polysaccharide-protein interaction
  • Structure and stability of antibodies in response to bioprocessing
  • Fibre polysaccharide as a molecular barrier against gluten intolerance
  • Fundamental Hydrodynamic Studies on Therapeutic Mixtures of Non-dietary Carbohydrate
  • Pancreatic Islet Encapsulation
  • Manipulation of embryonic stem cells in the generation of pancreatic islet secreting cells
  • Islet Tissue Engineering: Using biomimetic templates to control pancreatic stem cell differentiation
  • Hypertension in Black Afro-Caribbean People

Current Research

Research Projects

Insulin Therapy

Since the discovery of insulin in 1921/22, thorough and painstaking research by clinicians, scientists, and patients has ensured that exogenous insulins continue to evolve. The reason for this has been the continued desire to maintain adequate glycaemic control, improve HbA1c, and eventually reduce the number of people suffering from the sequelae of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Initial insulins lacked precision, accuracy and purity. As a consequence of these impurities, many patients presented with lipodystrophy and other hypersensitivities. In an attempt to diminish and eventually eradicate these problems, protein biochemists played a greater role in structurally altering the insulins available with the use of recombinant technology to improve purity.

Our research team continue to investigate the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and physiological properties of novel insulins in order to establish if biochemical aberrations are reduced and glycaemic levels improved.

Novel Glycan Treatment

Inflammation, contraction, neoangiogenesis, extracellular matrix deposition, granulation tissue synthesis, re-epithelialization and remodeling constitute the wound healing process. These stages are related in various cellular and molecular signals and when these signals are impaired, the wound healing process is delayed as a result of diabetes, malnutrition and infection.

Several studies have recently reported that growth factors are widely used in impaired wound healing as therapeutic agents. The most widely studied growth factors include platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) have been, which are known for stimulating cell proliferation, recruiting various cell types into injured sites, and inducing synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) during wound healing processes. bFGF, in particular, has the capability to promote wound repair and angiogenesis with EGF contributing to the wound healing process through keratinocytes stimulation, proliferation and migration, in addition to in vivo dermal regeneration initiation. While these growth factors effect therapeutic wound healing in diabetes, they have limited use as therapeutic agents, because of the short half-life, in vivo. In addition to this, ineffectual experimental conditions and inconsistent release of growth factors from scaffolds resulted in poor activity post scaffold-loading. We continue to examine novel approaches for patients with diabetes and compromised injuries.

Coeliac's Disease and Diabetes mellitus

Celiac disease occurs when gluten initiates the immune system to attack the lining of the small intestine. The resulting intestinal damage - villous atrophy, can cause malnutrition and conditions such as osteoporosis. It can also potentially result in cancer in rare cases. The disorder is an autoimmune response, which results in the immune system's reacting to a gluten protein precipitating white blood cells to erroneously attack the small intestinal lining. Celiac disease is also associated with other autoimmune conditions, including autoimmune thyroid disease and type 1 diabetes. Our research team has been examining alternative novel approaches to this disorder.

Natural Medicinal products in Diabetes mellitus and cancer

In the contemporary society, diabetes mellitus is considered as a common, growing, serious, costly, and potentially preventable public health problem. It is forecasted that in 2030, the number of people with diabetes will go up from 117 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. The prevalence of diabetes will place a huge burden on health and financial structures of countries, and these will impact on individuals, as well as families and nations. Polysaccharides, para-aminobenzoic acid, fixed oils, sterol, proteins, and peptides are biologically active ingredients can play important physiological functions. Our team of researchers are investigating Cucurbitacea and the macromolecules, therein, such as Trigonelline (TRG), Nicotinic acid (NA), and d-chiro-inositol (DCI) for hypoglycaemic and anti-carcinogenic properties.

Research Interests

  • Physico-chemical interaction and characterisation of Insulin/(-like) small peptides
  • Physico-chemical interactions of Polysaccharide-proteins in drug delivery.
  • Enhancing nutritional potential by utilising naturally-derived products.
  • Utilising raw materials to facilitate biomaterials innovation in Applied Health and Therapeutics.
  • Protein-polysaccharide interactions
  • Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus
  • New technologies to assist the development/production of products aimed at improving diet and health

Currently collaborating with more than 20 non-UK global research partners.

Funding is drawn from the Royal Society, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, GSK Vaccines, Pfizer Global, Medimmune, Kelloggs and Independent Diabetes Trust (IDDT) and Gary is grateful to them for their generous support.

  • WAKEFIELD, J.M.K., GILLIS, R.B., ADAMS, G.G., MCQUEEN, C. and HARDING, S.E., 2018. Controlled depolymerisation, as assessed by Analytical Ultracentrifugation, of low molecular weight chitosan for potential use in archaeological conservation European Biophysics Journal. 47(7), 769-775
  • GARY G. ADAMS, ANDREW MEAL, PAUL S. MORGAN, QUSHMUA E. ALZAHRANI, HANNE ZOBEL, RYAN LITHGO, M. SAMIL KOK, DAVID T. M. BESONG, SHAHWAR I. JIWANI, SIMON BALLANCE, STEPHEN E. HARDING, NAOMI CHAYEN, RICHARD B. GILLIS, 2018. Characterisation of insulin analogues therapeutically available to patients PlosOne. 13(3), e0195010
  • JAMES MASON, ANDREW MEAL, IAN SHAW, GARY G. ADAMS, 2018. Outcomes of Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction and Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy in Adults with diabetes: A Systematic Review Journal of Diabetes and Treatment. 2018(2), 1-20
  • ADIEWERE P., GILLIS, R.B. , IMRAN JIWANI, S, MEAL, A., SHAW, I, AND ADAMS, G.G, 2018. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Patient Education in Preventing and Reducing the Incidence or Recurrence of Adult Diabetes Foot Ulcers (DFU) Heliyon. e00614
  • GUY CHANNELL, GARY ADAMS, YUDONG LU, RICHARD GILLIS, VLAD DINU, MYRIAM GRUNDY, BALAZS BAJKA, PETER BUTTERWORTH, PETER ELLIS, ALAN MACKIE, SIMON BALLANCE, AND STEPHEN HARDING, 2018. Extended Fujita method for representing the molecular weight and molecular weight distributions of native and processed oat beta-glucans Scientific Reports. 8, 11809
  • CHANNELL, G, ADAMS, G.G. AND HARDNG, S.E., 2018. A simple cell-alignment protocol for sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation to complement mechanical and optical alignment procedures European Biophysics Journal. 47(7), 809–813
  • LEAH HENNESSEY, IAN SHAW, GARY G ADAMS and SAM OKYERE, 2018. Does ethnicity and culture affect the noncompliance of cervical cancer screening? MOJ Public Health. 7(4), 219‒227
  • ELEANOR HARTILL, RICHARD B. GILLIS, SHAHWAR IMRAN JIWANI, NATASHA RECCHIA, ANDREW MEAL, GARY G. ADAMS, 2018. Hypoglycaemic unawareness A systematic review of qualitative studies of significant others’ (SO) supportive interventions for patients with diabetes mellitus Heliyon. 4, 1-31
  • ROCÍO FERNÁNDEZ‐MÉNDEZ, SANCHO RODRÍGUEZ‐VILLAR, PABLO F. MÉNDEZ, RICHARD WINDLE, GARY GEORGE ADAMS, 2018. Methodology for the analysis and comparison of protocols for glycaemic control in intensive care Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 2018, 1–9
  • P. MCARDLE; S.M. GREENFIELD; A. AVERY; G.G ADAMS; P.S.GILL, 2017. Dietitians’ practice in giving carbohydrate advice in the management of type 2 diabetes: A Mixed Methods Study Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 30(3), 385-393
  • MARY PHILLIPS-JONES, GUY CHANNELL, CLAIRE KELSALL, CHARLOTTE HUGHES, ALISON ASHCROFT, SIMON PATCHING, VLAD DINU, RICHARD GILLIS, GARY ADAMS, AND STEPHEN HARDING, 2017. Hydrodynamics of the VanA-type VanS histidine kinase: an extended solution conformation and first evidence for interactions with vancomycin Scientific Reports. 7, 46180
  • GEORGE KERRISON, RICHARD GILLIS, SHAHWAR JIWANI, QUSHMUA ALZAHRANI, SAMIL KOK, STEPHEN E. HARDING, IAN SHAW AND GARY ADAMS, 2017. The effectiveness of lifestyle adaptation for the treatment of pre-diabetes in adults: a systematic review Journal of Diabetes Research. 2017, 1-20
  • GARY G. ADAMS QUSHMUA ALZAHRANI, SHAHWAR I. JIWANI, ANDREW MEAL, PAUL S. MORGAN , FRANK COFFEY, SAMIL KOK, ARTHUR J. ROWE, STEPHEN E. HARDING, NAOMI CHAYEN RICHARD B. GILLIS, 2017. Glargine and Degludec: Solution behaviour of higher dose synthetic insulins Scientific Reports. 7(1), 7287
  • KARAVADRA K, GILLIS RB, JIWANI SI, ALZAHRANI Q, KOK S, HARDING SE, SHAW I AND ADAMS GARY G, 2017. How Effective are Preconception Care Services for Women with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review Diabetes and Obesity International Journal. 2(4), 1-15
  • ARIS, A, BLAKE, H and ADAMS, G, 2017. Health beliefs predict self-care practices and glycaemic control in Malaysian patients with insulin-treated diabetes: a longitudinal study. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine. 17(2), 80-89.
  • PHILLIPS-JONES, M.K., LITHGO, R., DINU, V., GILLIS, R.B., HARDING, J.E., ADAMS, G.G. & HARDING, S.E., 2017. Full hydrodynamic reversibility of the weak dimerization of vancomycin and elucidation of its interaction with VanS monomers at clinical concentration Scientific Reports. 7, 12697
  • HARDING, S.E., TOMBS, M.P., ADAMS, G.G., PAULSEN, B.S., INNGJERDINGEN, K.T. and BARSETT, H., 2017. An Introduction to Polysaccharide Biotechnology, 2nd Edition CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.
  • GILLIS, R.B., ADAMS, G.G., BESONG, D.T.M., MACHOVA, E., EBRINGEROVA, A., ROWE, A.J., HARDING, S.E. and PATEL, T.R., 2017. Application of novel analytical ultracentrifuge analysis to solutions of fungal mannans European Biophysics Journal. 46(3), 235-245
  • ALI SABER ABDELHAMEED, GARY G. ADAMS, GORDON A. MORRIS, FAHAD M. ALMUTAIRI, PIERRE DUVIVIER, KAREL CONRATH & STEPHEN E. HARDING, 2016. A glycoconjugate of Haemophilus influenzae Type b capsular polysaccharide with tetanus toxoid protein: hydrodynamic properties mainly influenced by the carbohydrate Scientific Reports. 6, 22208
  • RICHARD B. GILLIS GARY G. ADAMS, QUSHMUA ALZAHRANI, STEPHEN E. HARDING, 2016. A novel analytical ultracentrifugation based approach to the low resolution structure of gum Arabic Biopolymers. 105(9), 618-25
  • HARDING SE, ADAMS GG and GILLIS RB, 2016. Molecular weight analysis of starches: which technique? Starch/Stärke. 68, 1-8
  • SWEENEY SM, BULLEN, GA, GILLIS RB, ADAMS GG, ROWE AJ, HARDING SE, TUCKER JHR, PEACOCK AFA and MURPHY PV, 2016. Coiled coil type neoglycoproteins presenting three lactose residues Tetrahedron Letters. 57, 1414-1417
  • THEO VARZAKASA, ASMA ALGHAMDI, HANAN ALGHAMDI, ROBERT LINFORTH, VLAD DINU, TABOT D. BESONG, RICHARD B. GILLIS, GARY G. ADAMS, D. ARAPOGLOU, IAN F. CONNERTON, STEPHEN E. HARDING & CLEANTHES ISRAILIDES, 2016. The effect of thermal processing in oil on the macromolecular integrity and acrylamide formation from starch of three potato cultivars organically fertilized Cogent Food & Agriculture. 1-16
  • ALMUTAIRI, F.M., HERNANDEZ-CIFRE, J.G., ADAMS, G.G., KOK, M.S., MACKIE, A.R., GARCIA DE LA TORRE, J. and HARDING, S.E., 2016. Application of recent advances in hydrodynamic methods for characterising mucins in solution European Biophysics Journal. 45(1), 45-54
  • GILLIS, R.B., ADAMS, G.G., BESONG, T., MACHOVA, EBRINGEROVA, ROWE, A., HARDING, S.E., PATEL, T., 2016. Application of novel analytical ultracentrifuge analysis to solutions of fungal mannans European Biophysics Journal.
  • BERWICK, MATTHEW R., SLOPE, LOUISE N., SMITH, CAITLIN F., KING, SIOBHAN M., NEWTON, SARAH L., GILLIS, RICHARD B., ADAMS, GARY G., ROWE, ARTHUR J., HARDING, STEPHEN E., BRITTON, MELANIE M. and PEACOCK, ANNA F. A., 2016. Location dependent coordination chemistry and MRI relaxivity, in de novo designed lanthanide coiled coils CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 7(3), 2207-2216
  • ULUISIK, S., CHAPMAN, N.H., SMITH, R., POOLE, M., ADAMS, G., GILLIS, R.B., BESONG, T.M.D., SHELDON, J., STIEGELMEYER, S., PEREZ, L., SAMSULRIZAL, N., WANG, D., FISK, I.D., YANG, N., BAXTER, C., RICKETT, D., FRAY, R., BLANCO-ULATE, B., POWELL, A.L.T., HARDING, S.E., CRAIGON, J., ROSE, J.K.C., FICH, E.A., SUN, L., DOMOZYCH, D.S., FRASER, P.D., TUCKER, G.A., GRIERSON, D. and SEYMOUR, G.B., 2016. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening Nature Biotechnology. 34(9), doi:10.1038/nbt.3602
  • HARDING SE, ADAMS GG, GILLIS RB, ALMUTAIRI FM AND MORRIS GA, 2016. Aspects of the Analytical Ultracentrifuge Determination of the Molar Mass Distribution of Polysaccharides. In: UCHIYAMA S, ARISAWA F, STAFFORD WF, LAUE T, ed., Analytical Ultracentrifugation: Instrumentation, Software, and Applications Springer Verlag. 375-386
  • ABDELHAMEED A.S., MORRIS G.A., ALMUTAIRI F.M., ADAMS G.G., DUVIVIER P., CONRATH K. and HARDING S.E., 2016. Solution conformation and flexibility of capsular polysaccharides from Neisseria meningitidis and glycoconjugates with the tetanus toxoid protein Scientific Reports. 6, 35588
  • EMILY MCHALE, SUSAN BRAOVAC, CALIN C. STEINDAL, RICHARD B. GILLIS, GARY G. ADAMS, HARTMUT KUTZKE, STEPHEN E. HARDING AND TORE BENNECHE, 2016. Synthesis and characterisation of lignin-like oligomers as a bio-inspired consolidant for waterlogged archaeological wood Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88(10-11), 969-977
  • STEPHEN E. HARDING, RICHARD B. GILLIS, GARY G. ADAMS, 2016. Assessing Sedimentation Equilibrium Profiles in Analytical Ultracentrifugation Experiments on macromolecules: from simple average molecular weight analysis to molecular weight distribution and interaction analysis Biophysical Reviews. 8(4), 299-308
  • PRASAD S. SARANGAPANI, JUSTIN WEAVER, ARUN PARUPUDI, TABOT M.D. BESONG, GARY G. ADAMS, STEPHEN E. HARDING, PRAKASH MANIKWAR, MARIA M. CASTELLANOS, STEVEN M. BISHOP, JAI A. PATHAK, 2016. Both Reversible Self-Association and Structural Changes Underpin Molecular Viscoelasticity of mAb Solutions Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1-11
  • FERNANDEZ, R.M., LANGLEY, J. AND ADAMS, G.G., 2016. Diabetic Ketoacidosis. In: Protocols in Critical Care 118. Marbán Libros. 1002-1008
  • FERNANDEZ, R.M., LANGLEY, J. AND ADAMS, G.G.,, 2016. Stress hyperglycaemia. In: Protocols in Critical Care 117. Marbán Libros. 993-1001
  • SANCHO RODRÍGUEZ VILLAR, MARCELINO SÁNCHEZ CASADO, GARY ADAMS, ROCIO FERNANDEZ MENDEZ, PETER M. KILGOUR, JOSÉ L. RODRÍGUEZ GARCÍA, JUAN ARÉVALO SERRANO, 2015. Basal functional status predicts functional recovery in critically ill patients with multiple organ failure Journal of Critical Care. 30(3), 511–517
  • RICHARD B. GILLIS, ARTHUR J. ROWE, GARY G. ADAMS AND STEPHEN E.HARDING, 2015. A review of modern approaches to the hydrodynamic characterisation of polydisperse macromolecular systems in biotechnology Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews.
  • HARDING, STEPHEN E, GILLIS, RICHARD B, ALMUTAIRI, FAHAD, ERTEN, TAYYIBE, KOK, M SAMIL and ADAMS, GARY G, 2015. Recent advances in the analysis of macromolecular interactions using the matrix-free method of sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge. Biology. 4(1), 237-50
  • ALMUTAIRI FM, ERTEN T, ADAMS GG, HAYES M, MCLOUGHLIN P, KOK MS, MACKIE AR, ROWE AJ and HARDING SE, 2015. Hydrodynamic characterisation of chitosan and its interaction with two polyanions: DNA and xanthan Carbohydrate Polymers. 122, 355-366
  • QUSHMUA E. ALZAHRANI, GARY G. ADAMS, RICHARD B. GILLIS, TABOT M.D. BESONG, M. SAMIL KÖK, EMILY FONG, RICHARD A. HARDING, JAN E.G. VAN DAM, RICHARD J.A. GOSSELINK, ARTHUR J. ROWE AND STEPHEN E. HARDING, 2015. Matrix-free hydrodynamic study on the size distribution and conformation of lignins from wood and non-wood Holzforschung. 70(2), 117-125
  • HARDING SE, ABDELHAMEED AS, GILLIS RB, MORRIS GA, ADAMS GG, 2015. Characterization of Capsular Polysaccharides and Their Glycoconjugates by Hydrodynamic Methods Methods Molecular Biology. 1331, 211-27
  • FAHAD M. ALMUTAIRI, JOSE- GINES HERNANEZ CIFRE, GARY G. ADAMS, M. SAMIL KÖK, ALAN R. MACKIE , JOSE GARCIA DE LA TORRE, STEPHEN E. HARDING, 2015. Application of recent advances in hydrodynamic methods for characterising mucins in solution European Biophysics Journal. (In Press.)
  • HARDING, S.E., ADAMS, G.G., ALMUTAIRI, F., ALZAHRANI, Q., ERTEN, T., KÖK, M.S. and GILLIS, R.B, 2015. Ultracentrifuge methods for the analysis of polysaccharides, glycoconjugates, and lignins. Methods in Enzymology. 562, 391-439
  • ROCÍO FERNÁNDEZ MÉNDEZ, JANE LANGLEY AND GARY ADAMS, 2015. Diabetic Ketoacidosis. In: Protocols in Intensive Care 118. Marbán Libros. 989-995
  • ROCÍO FERNÁNDEZ‑MÉNDEZ, JANE LANGLEY AND GARY ADAMS, 2015. Stress hyperglycaemia. In: Protocols in Intensive Care 117. Marbán Libros. 980-988
  • GARY G. ADAMS, SHAHWAR IMRAN, SHENG WANG, ABUBAKER MOHAMMAD, SAMIL KOK, DAVID A. GRAY, GUY A. CHANNELL, AND STEPHEN E. HARDING, 2014. The Hypoglycaemic Effect Of Pumpkin Seeds, Trigonelline (TRG), Nicotinic Acid (NA) and D-Chiro-inositol (DCI) In Controlling Glycaemic Levels In Diabetes Mellitus Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition.
  • PETER SCHUCK, RICHARD B. GILLIS, TABOT M.D. BESONG, FAHAD ALMUTAIRI, GARY G. ADAMS, ARTHUR J. ROWE AND STEPHEN E. HARDING, 2014. SEDFIT-MSTAR: Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution analysis of polymers by sedimentation equilibrium in the ultracentrifuge Analyst. 139, 79-92
  • MELANIE NIKOLAJSKI, GARY G. ADAMS, RICHARD B. GILLIS, DAVID TABOT BESONG, ARTHUR J. ROWE, THOMAS HEINZE & STEPHEN E. HARDING and THOMAS HEINZE & STEPHEN E. HARDING, 2014. Protein–like fully reversible tetramerisation and super-association of an aminocellulose Nature:Scientific Reports. 4, 3861
  • TAYYIBE ERTEN, GARY G. ADAMS TIMOTHY J. FOSTER AND STEPHEN E. HARDING, 2014. Comparative heterogeneity, molecular weights and viscosities of xanthans of different pyruvate and acetate content Food Hydrocolloids. 42, 335–341
  • GARY G. ADAMS AND STEPHEN E. HARDING, 2014. Gluten Intolerance Available at: <>
  • GORDON A. MORRIS, GARY G. ADAMS, STEPHEN E. HARDING, 2014. On hydrodynamic methods for the analysis of the sizes and shapes of polysaccharides in dilute solution: A short review Food Hydrocolloids. (In Press.)
  • ADAMS G. AND HARDING SE, 2013. Drug delivery systems for the treatment of diabetes mellitus: state of the art Current Pharmaceutical Design. 19(41), 1381
  • ALEX JERVIS, SUSANNAH CHAMPION, GEMMA FIGG, JANE LANGLEY AND GARY G. ADAMS, 2013. Prevalence of Diabetes Ketoacidosis Rises and Still No Strict Treatment Current Diabetes Reviews. 9(1),
  • G.A. MORRIS, G.G. ADAMS, S.E. HARDING, J.D. CASTILE AND A. SMITH, 2013. Stability of pectin-based drug delivery systems. In: Stability of Complex Carbohydrate Structures: Biofuels, Foods, Vaccines and Shipwrecks Royal Society of Chemistry. 99-109
  • FAHAD M. ALMUTAIRI, GARY G. ADAMS, MEHMET S. KÖK, CHRISTOPHER J. LAWSON, ROLAND GAHLER, SIMON WOOD, TIMOTHY J. FOSTER , ARTHUR J. ROWE AND STEPHEN E. HARDING, 2013. An analytical ultracentrifugation based study on the conformation of lambda carrageenan in aqueous solution Carbohydrate Polymers. 97(1), 203-9
  • GILLIS, R.B., ADAMS, G.G., WOLF, B., BERRY, M., BESONG, T.M.D., CORFIELD, A., KÖK, S.M., SIDEBOTTOM, R., LAFOND, D., ROWE, A.J. and HARDING, S.E., 2013. Molecular weight distribution analysis by ultracentrifugation: adaptation of a new approach for mucins Carbohydrate Polymers. 93(1), 178-183
  • FIGG, G., JERVIS, A., CHAMPION, S., LANGLEY, J., MEAL, A AND ADAMS, G.G., 2013. Statins As A Primary Prevention. Which One Is Most Effective? A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Journal of Cardiovascular Disease and Diagnosis. 1(2), 1-7
  • SUSANNAH CHAMPION, GEMMA FIGG, ALEX JERVIS AND GARY ADAMS, 2013. The Therapeutic Role of C-peptide in the Amelioration of Type 1 Diabetes Associated Microvascular Dysfunction of the Kidneys and Nerves Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism. 4(5), 1-10
  • RICHARD B. GILLIS, GARY G. ADAMS, THOMAS HEINZE,, MELANIE NIKOLAJSKI, STEPHEN E. HARDING AND ARTHUR J. ROWE, 2013. MultiSig: a new high precision approach to the analysis of complex biomolecular systems European Biophysics Journal. 42(10), 777-786
  • GARY G. ADAMS, SHAHWAR IMRAN, M. SAMIL KÖK, STEPHEN E. HARDING, MOHAMMAD ILYAS AND ARTHUR S. TATHAM, 2012. The interaction of dietary fibres with disulphide bonds (s-s) and a potential strategy to reduce the toxicity of the gluten proteins in coeliac disease Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews. 28, 115-130
  • SHAHWAR IMRAN, RICHARD B. GILLIS, M. SAMIL KOK, STEPHEN E. HARDING AND GARY G. ADAMS, 2012. Application and use of Inulin as a tool for therapeutic drug delivery Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews. 28, 33-46
  • GARY G. ADAMS, SHAHWAR IMRAN, SHENG WANG, ABUBAKER MOHAMMAD, M.SAMIL KOK, DAVID A. GRAY, GUY A. CHANNELL, AND STEPHEN E. HARDING, 2012. Extraction, Isolation And Characterisation Of Oil Bodies From Pumpkin Seeds For Therapeutic Use Food Chemistry. 134, 1919–1925
  • STEPHEN E. HARDING, FAHAD ALMUTAIRI, GARY G. ADAMS, GORDON MORRIS, CHRISTOPHER J. LAWSON, ROLAND J. GAHLER AND SIMON WOOD, 2012. Dilute Solution Viscometry Studies on a Therapeutic Mixture of Non-digestible Carbohydrates International Journal of Biotechnology For Wellness Industries. 1, 67-84
  • KÖK, M.S., GILLIS, R., ANG, S., LAFOND, D., TATHAM, A.S., ADAMS, G. and HARDING, S., 2012. Can dietary fibre help provide safer food products for sufferers of gluten intolerance? A well-established biophysical probe may help towards providing an answer BMC Biophysics. 5, 10
  • RICHARD B. GILLIS, GARY G. ADAMS, BETTINA WOLF, MONICA BERRY, TABOT M.D. BESONG, ANTHONY CORFIELD, SAMIL M. KÖK, RAY SIDEBOTTOM, DAVID LAFOND, ARTHUR J. ROWE AND STEPHEN E. HARDING, 2012. Molecular weight distribution analysis by Ultracentrifugation: adaptation of a new approach for mucins Carbohydrate Polymers. 93(1), 178-83
  • STEPHEN E. HARDING, ALI SABER ABDELHAMEED, GORDON A. MORRIS, GARY ADAMS, OLIVIER LALOUX, LOUIS CERNY, BENJAMIN BONNIER, PIERRE DUVIVIER, KAREL CONRATH, CHRISTOPHE LENFANT, 2012. Solution properties of capsular polysaccharides from Streptococcus pneumoniae Carbohydrate Polymers. 90, 237-242
  • ALI SABER ABDELHAMEED, GORDON A. MORRIS, GARY G. ADAMS, ARTHUR J. ROWE, OLIVIER LALOUX, LOUIS CERNY, BENJAMIN BONNIER, PIERRE DUVIVIER, KAREL CONRATH, CHRISTOPHE LENFANT AND STEPHEN E. HARDING, 2012. An asymmetric and slightly but irreversibly dimerized structure for the tetanus toxoid conjugation protein for glycoconjugate vaccines Carbohydrate Polymers. 90(4), 1831–1835
  • VICTORIA H. TOMLINSON, JANE LANGLEY, ANDREW G. MEAL AND GARY G. ADAMS, 2012. “Medioglycaemia”: A New Concept in Glycaemic Control In Intensive Care (ICU) Units? Journal of Diabetes Mellitus. 2(4), 361-368
  • MAN-LING HUI, ARUN KUMAR AND GARY G. ADAMS, 2012. Protocol-Directed Insulin Infusion Sliding Scales improve Perioperative Hyperglycaemia in Critical Care Perioperative Medicine. 1(7), 2-10
  • ADAMS, G.G. AND LANGLEY, J., 2011. Diabetic Ketoacidosis. In: SANCHO RODRÍGUEZ VILLAR, ed., Protocols in Intensive Therapy Units First. 1. Marban, Madrid. 661-665
  • SHAW K, RITCHIE, D AND ADAMS, G.G., 2011. Does Witnessing Resuscitation Help Parents Come to Terms With the Death of their Child? - A Review of the Literature Intensive and Critical Care Nursing. 27(5), 253-62
  • HARDING, S.E., SCHUCK, P., ABDELHAMMED, A.S., ADAMS, G., KÖK, M.S. and MORRIS, G.A., 2011. Extended Fujita approach to the molecular weight distribution of polysaccharides and other polymer systems Methods. 54(1), 136-144
  • GARY G. ADAMS, SHAHWAR IMRAN, SHENG WANG, ABUBAKER MOHAMMAD, SAMIL KOK, DAVID A. GRAY, GUY A. CHANNELL, GORDON A. MORRIS, AND STEPHEN E. HARDING, 2011. The Hypoglycaemic Effect of Pumpkins as Anti-diabetic and Functional Medicines Food Research International. 44, 862–867
  • GARY ADAMS, LEE BUTTERY, SNOW STOLNIK, STEPHEN E. HARDING AND NAN WANG, 2011. Assessment of Biological Properties of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Characteristics Prior To Differentiation Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology. 2(4), 378-389.
  • MORRIS, G.A, CASTILE, J and ADAMS, G.G. AND HARDING, S.E., 2011. The effect of prolonged storage at different temperatures on the particle size distribution of tripolyphosphate (TPP) - chitosan nanoparticles Carbohydrate Polymers. 84, 1430-1434.
  • GARY ADAMS, ALAN LIDDLE AND JANE LANGLEY, 2011. Tight Glycaemic Control in Intensive Care. In: Protocols in Intensive Therapy Units 656-660
  • MORRIS, G.A., KÖK, M.S. and HARDING, S.E. AND ADAMS, G.G., 2010. Polysaccharide drug delivery systems based on pectin and chitosan Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews. 27, 257-284
  • ADAMS, G.G, BUTTERY, L and STOLNIK, S. AND WANG, N., 2010. Stem Cells: The Therapeutic Role In The Treatment Of Diabetes Mellitus Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews. 27, 285-304.
  • MORRIS, G.A., CASTILE, J., SMITH, A., ADAMS, G.G. and HARDING, S.E., 2010. The effect of different storage temperatures on the physical properties of pectin solutions and gels Polymer Degradation and Stability. 95(12), 2670-2673
  • ADAMS, G. G., 2010. Adolescence, Diabetes and Christmas At: Insulin Dependent Diabetes Trust January Newsletter (63) 2
  • GARY ADAMS, TIM CONSTANTIN and AMIR FAHMI, 2010. Insulin-Nanoparticle Conjugates WO 2010/116185 11/01/2010 00:00:00
  • ANG, S., KOGULANATHAN, J., MORRIS, G.A., KÖK, M.S., SHEWRY, P.R., TATHAM, A.S., ADAMS, G.G., ROWE, A.J. and HARDING, S.E., 2010. Structure and heterogeneity of gliadin: a hydrodynamic evaluation European Biophysics Journal. 39(2), 255–261
  • MORRIS, G.A., CASTILE, J., SMITH, A., ADAMS, G.G and HARDING, S.E., 2009. Macromolecular conformation of chitosan in dilute solution: a new global hydrodynamic approach Carbohydrate Polymers. 76, 616-621
  • YADAV, N, MORRIS, G, HARDING, S.E and ANG, S. AND ADAMS, G. G., 2009. Various non-injectable delivery systems for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders-Drug Targets. 9, 1-13
  • MORRIS, G.A., CASTILE, H., SMITH, A. and ADAMS, G.G. AND HARDING, S.E., 2009. The kinetics of chitosan depolymerisation at different temperatures Polymer Degradation and Stability. 94, 1334-1348.
  • LUKE JEYES, ELIZABETH EVANS, PETER MANSELL, GARY ADAMS, 2009. A Quantitative study examining the quality of life (QOL) and HbA1c of adults with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM); A DAFNE study Journal of Diabetes Nursing. 13(7),
  • ADAMS, G.G. and CONSTANTIN, T. AND FAHMI, A., 2009. Insulin-Nanoparticle Conjugates Patent:GB0906023.7, 01/01/1900 00:00:00
  • GARY G. ADAMS AND YUXIN CUI, 2009. Effects of extracellular matrix proteins on expansion, proliferation and insulin-producing-cell differentiation of ARIP cells Journal of Biomedical Science & Engineering. 2, 216-226
  • WANG, N., ADAMS, G., BUTTERY, L., FALCONE, F.H. and STOLNIK, S., 2009. Alginate encapsulation technology supports embryonic stem cells differentiation into insulin-producing cells Journal of Biotechnology. 144(4), 304-312
  • ELIZABETH EVANS, LUKE JEYES, GARY ADAMS, 2008. Effects of alcohol on blood glucose levels in people with diabetes: A systematic review Journal of Diabetes Nursing. 12(8), (In Press.)
  • LANGLEY, J. AND ADAMS G., 2007. Insulin-based regimens decrease mortality rates in critically ill patients: A systematic review Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. 23(3), 184-192
  • CUI, Y., SHAKESHEFF, K.M. and ADAMS, G.G., 2006. Encapsulation of RIN-m5F cells within Ba2+ crosslinked alginate beads affects proliferation and insulin secretion Journal of Microencapsulation. 23(6), 663-676 (In Press.)
  • ADAMS, G.G., CUI, Y., MITCHELL, J.H. and TAYLOR, M.J., 2006. Rheological and diffusion properties of a dextran-con A polymer in the presence of Insulin and Magnesium Rheologica Acta. 45(5), 611-620
  • WANG, N, BUTTERY, L and STOLNIK, S. AND ADAMS, G., 2006. In-vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into pancreatic insulin producing cells Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 58(10), 140
  • VAUGHAN, N., RANDLE, J. and ADAMS, G.G., 2006. Infection control link professionals' knowledge of Clostridium difficile British Journal of Infection Control. 7(5), 25-29
  • ADAMS, G., WANG, N. and CUI, Y., 2005. Future alternative therapies in a quest to halt aberrations in diabetes mellitus Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 59(6), 296-301
  • DOBBINS, H. AND ADAMS, G.G., 2005. Homeostasis. In: MALLIK, M. HALL, C. AND HOWARD, D., ed., Nursing knowledge and practice: a decision making approach Bailliere Tindall.
  • ADAMS, G, CLARK, J, SAHOTA, T, TANNA, S and TAYLOR, M J, 2000. Diabetes mellitus and closed-loop insulin delivery. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews. 17, 455-96
  • TANNA, S, TAYLOR, M J and ADAMS, G, 1999. Insulin delivery governed by covalently modified lectin-glycogen gels sensitive to glucose. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 51(10), 1093-8
  • TAYLOR,M.J., TANNA,S., TAYLOR,P.M. and ADAMS,G.G., 1995. The delivery of insulin from aqueous and non-aqueous reservoirs governed by a glucose sensitive gel membrane Journal of Drug Targeting. 3(3), 209-216
  • TAYLOR,M.J., TANNA,S., TAYLOR,P.M. and ADAMS,G.G., 1995. Insulin delivery using a novel glucose-sensitive formulation. Proceedings of the international symposium of controlled release, bioactive materials. 746-747

School of Health Sciences

B Floor, South Block Link
Queen's Medical Centre
Nottingham, NG7 2HA

telephone: +44 (0)115 95 15559