7. Resources

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Glossary

TermDefinition
Arithmetic strategies

Different approaches to solving a given arithmetic problem. These include strategies that are carried out mentally, such as retrieval, or using external aids, such as fingers or manipulatives.

Chunking information

Combining individual pieces of information into meaningful groups so that more information can be stored in working memory. For example, a phone number can be more easily remembered by chunking the digits into groups.

Estimation

Understanding the approximate quantity associated with a number, or the approximate result of a sum.

Flexible thinking

The ability to switch mental focus between different tasks, especially in the face of distraction, and to consider multiple perspectives of a situation at the same time

Manipulative

Objects, such as interlocking cubes or Cuisenaire rods, which children can move and combine in order to support learning or problem solving.

Maths facts

Being able to retrieve simple addition, subtraction, multiplication and division facts from memory..

Mirror-writing digits

Producing digits in reverse direction. Single digits may be reversed and/or digits within a multi-digit number may be reversed.

Mnemonics

Techniques such as rhymes or phrases to help learning and memory. For example, remembering the order of colours in a rainbow with the phrase “Richard of York gave battle in vain”.

Processing speed

The speed at which an individual can take in and process information in the mind.

Recognising numbers

Being able to read or write numbers in Arabic numeral form.

Verbal rehearsal

Repeating information over and over either aloud or to oneself in order to remember it.

Visuospatial skills

Being aware of where objects are located in space, including one’s own body parts.

Working memory

A cognitive skill in which an individual both stores and processes information in the mind for a short period of time.

Working memory training

Activities designed to increase the capacity of an individual’s working memory. These are often computer-based and are carried out separately to everyday classroom learning.

Further Information

ResourceResource Description
PRISM Study The PRISM (PRemature Infants’ Skills in Mathematics) Study team are a group of researchers working together to find out about any lasting effects children born preterm may experience. The PRISM Study team designed this e-learning resource. You can find out more about their research here.
Action Medical ResearchAction Medical Research are a UK-based charity that fund the very best research to save and improve the lives of sick babies, children and young people. Action Medical Research funded the development of this e-learning resource. This website includes information on all of the projects that Action Medical Research fund.
Bliss Bliss is a UK-based charity working to give every baby born preterm or sick the best chance of survival and quality of life. This website has information about preterm birth for parents and health professionals.
What is working memory? On this website, Chris Jarrold, Professor of cognitive development at the University of Bristol, describes the concept of working memory and why it is important in a classroom setting. This website includes factsheets and working memory tasks for education professionals.
Understanding Working Memory - A Classroom GuideThis pdf is a guide to identifying and supporting children with working memory difficulties in the classroom, written by Professor Susan Gathercole and Dr Tracy Alloway.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellent (NICE) guidelines for the developmental follow-up of children and young people born pretermThis website provides links to the NICE Guideline for the developmental follow-up of babies, children and young people born preterm. The guideline explains the risk of different developmental problems and disorders that children born preterm might have, and specifies what extra assessments and support children born preterm might need to support their growth and development.
SUM ProjectThe Skills Underlying Maths (SUM) Project is a research study exploring the skills important for learning maths. This website includes an overview page for teachers describing the cognitive skills that are involved in learning maths, and some useful tips for identifying cognitive difficulties.
Cambridge Mathematics EspressosThis website contains short articles on different areas of mathematics education, designed with teachers in mind. “Espressos” are produced monthly by experts in the field, providing summaries of the latest research along with guidance and further reading.
BOLD BlogThe blog “BOLD – Blog on Learning and Development” is an interdisciplinary initiative dedicated to spreading the word about how children and young people develop and learn. Researchers at various stages of their careers as well as science journalists, policymakers and practitioners have their say on this blog.
The Learning ScientistsThe Learning Scientists website contains blog posts, podcasts, videos and downloadable materials with the aim of making scientific research more accessible to students, teachers and other educators. This includes content relevant to the cognitive issues highlighted in this e-learning resource.
The Science of Learning – Future Learn courseA course for education professionals on scientific research about learning and how to apply it to the classroom to help with teaching STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) subjects.
The Science of Learning – Deans for Impact This pdf provides a summary of research from cognitive science related to how students learn, with practical implications for teaching and learning.
Heads Together: Mentally Healthy SchoolsThe Mentally Healthy Schools website provides quality-assured information, advice and resources to help primary schools understand and promote children’s mental health and wellbeing.
Anna Freud Centre – Schools in MindSchools in Mind is a free network for school staff and allied professionals which shares practical, academic and clinical expertise regarding the wellbeing and mental health issues that affect schools.
Young MindsYoung minds undertake mental health campaigns and research, and make resources available to professionals. They also run a helpline for adults worried about the emotional problems, behaviour or mental health of anyone up to the age of 25.
Royal College of PsychiatristsThis website contains an index of mental health information tailored for young people, parents, teachers and carers.
MindEdMindEd is a free educational resource on children and young people’s mental health. You can sign up to access an e-learning resource which includes an Education module.
Anti-Bullying AllianceThe Anti-Bullying Alliance is a coalition of organisations and individuals that are united against bullying. This website contains guidance and resources for schools on bullying.

Learning outcomes

By completing this resource you will be able:

  • to understand what kind of strategies might be helpful for supporting children born preterm
  • to understand that preterm birth is a risk factor and an individual assessment is always necessary to provide appropriate support

This resource was developed by:

We would like to thank the following people who all helped in the development of this resource:

Content authors: Samantha Johnson, Sarah Clayton, Lucy Cragg, Camilla Gilmore, Rose Griffiths, Neil Marlow, Victoria Simms.

Technical developers: Heather Wharrad, Aaron Fecowycz, Lydia Jones, Mike Taylor.

Contributors: Felicity Amswych, Louise Barrow, Aedhan Brown, Catherine Day, Louis Day, Gillian Doyle, Dylan Evans, Rebecca Goodman, Robert Goodman, Jo Hall, Katie Hendry, Nicola Mirams, George O’Mahony, Alexandra Peacock, Emily Sharp, Jake Sharp, Milly Smith, Katherine Vincent, Georgina Watson, Ben Wills-Eve.

Content reviewers: Alison Brown (Teacher); Olivia Smith (Teacher).

Acknowledgements: With thanks to the participants of the PRISM-2 Study Stakeholder Workshop for their role in co-designing this resource.

Funding: The development of this resource was funded by Action Medical Research.

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