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Henry was the eldest son of Henry Bayly, who changed his name to Paget in 1770 on becoming the 9th Baron Paget. The baron became the 2nd Earl of Uxbridge in 1784, after which Henry was styled Lord Paget. He was educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford, and in 1790 was elected as M.P. for Caernarfon Boroughs. From 1796 to 1812 he was M.P. for Milborne Port.
Paget was an ineffectual M.P., preferring to concentrate on his military career. This culminated in his personal command of the allied cavalry at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, during which he lost his right leg.
Paget had succeeded his father as Earl of Uxbridge in 1812, and in recognition of his command at Waterloo was created Marquess of Anglesey in 1815.
In 1828 Anglesey was appointed as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He was a supporter of Catholic emancipation and made it clear that the moment should be seized. He was recalled by Wellington over this issue, but reinstated in 1830 by the new prime minister Earl Grey once emancipation had been granted. Anglesey was a liberal Lord Lieutenant, who found common cause with many of Daniel O'Connell's demands for reform. His greatest achievement as Lord Lieutenant was the establishment of a national education system.
He retired in 1833. Anglesey returned to public office as Master-General of the Ordinance from 1846 to 1852.