Centre for Evidence Based Hand Surgery
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Lateral & medial epicondylitis/tendinopathy



Sensory and motor deficits exist on the non-injured side of patients with unilateral tendon pain and disability--implications for central nervous system involvement: a systematic review with meta-analysis.
Heales LJ, Lim EC, Hodges PW, Vicenzino B.
Br J Sports Med. 2014 Oct;48(19):1400-6. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092535. Epub 2013 Oct 21.

Tennis elbow.
Bisset L, Coombes B, Vicenzino B.
BMJ Clin Evid. 2011 Jun 27;2011. pii: 1117.


Forearm muscle activity in lateral epicondylalgia: a systematic review with quantitative analysis.
Heales LJ, Bergin MJ, Vicenzino B, Hodges PW.
Sports Med. 2016 Dec;46(12):1833-1845.

Association of psychological variables and outcome in tendinopathy: a systematic review.
Mallows A, Debenham J, Walker T, Littlewood C.
Br J Sports Med. 2017 May;51(9):743-748. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-096154. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

Lateral epicondylitis and physical exposure at work? A review of prospective studies and meta-analysis.
Descatha A, Albo F, Leclerc A, Carton M, Godeau D, Roquelaure Y, Petit A, Aublet-Cuvelier A.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2016 Nov;68(11):1681-1687. doi: 10.1002/acr.22874.

Obesity as a risk factor for tendinopathy: a systematic review.
Franceschi F, Papalia R, Paciotti M, Franceschetti E, Di Martino A, Maffulli N, Denaro V.
Int J Endocrinol. 2014;2014:670262. doi: 10.1155/2014/670262. Epub 2014 Aug 19.


Physical examination of the elbow, what is the evidence? A systematic literature review.
Zwerus EL, Somford MP, Maissan F, Heisen J, Eygendaal D, van den Bekerom MP.
Br J Sports Med. 2017 Mar 1. pii: bjsports-2016-096712. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-096712. [Epub ahead of print]

The diagnostic test accuracy of ultrasound for the detection of lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Latham SK, Smith TO.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2014 May;100(3):281-6. doi: 10.1016/j.otsr.2014.01.006. Epub 2014 Apr 4.

The diagnostic validity of musculoskeletal ultrasound in lateral epicondylalgia: a systematic review.
Dones VC 3rd, Grimmer K, Thoirs K, Suarez CG, Luker J.
BMC Med Imaging. 2014 Mar 3;14:10. doi: 10.1186/1471-2342-14-10.

Treatments - surgical

Surgery for lateral elbow pain.
Buchbinder R, Johnston RV, Barnsley L, Assendelft WJ, Bell SN, Smidt N.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Mar 16;(3):CD003525. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003525.pub2.

Open, arthroscopic, and percutaneous surgical treatment of lateral epicondylitis: A systematic review.
Burn MB, Mitchell RJ, Liberman SR, Lintner DM, Harris JD, McCulloch PC.
Hand (N Y). 2017 Mar 1:1558944717701244. doi: 10.1177/1558944717701244. [Epub ahead of print]

A systematic review of tennis elbow surgery: Open versus arthroscopic versus percutaneous release of the common extensor origin.
Pierce TP, Issa K, Gilbert BT, Hanley B, Festa A, McInerney VK, Scillia AJ.
Arthroscopy. 2017 Jun;33(6):1260-1268.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2017.01.042. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

Percutaneous needle tenotomy for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis: A systematic review of the literature.
Mattie R, Wong J, McCormick Z, Yu S, Saltychev M, Laimi K.
PM R. 2016 Oct 22. pii: S1934-1482(16)31059-0. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2016.10.012.

Quality and quantity of the elbow arthroscopy literature: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Erickson BJ, Chalmers PN, Cvetanovich GL, Frank RM, Romeo AA, Harris JD.
Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2016 Jul-Aug;45(5):E290-8.

Evidence-based indications for elbow arthroscopy.
Yeoh KM, King GJ, Faber KJ, Glazebrook MA, Athwal GS.
Arthroscopy. 2012 Feb;28(2):272-82. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2011.10.007.

Treatments - non-surgical, general

What is the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of conservative interventions for tendinopathy? An overview of systematic reviews of clinical effectiveness and systematic review of economic evaluations.
Long L, Briscoe S, Cooper C, Hyde C, Crathorne L.
Health Technol Assess. 2015 Jan;19(8):1-134. doi: 10.3310/hta19080.

Does nonsurgical treatment improve longitudinal outcomes of lateral epicondylitis over no treatment? A meta-analysis.
Sayegh ET, Strauch RJ.
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 Mar;473(3):1093-107. doi: 10.1007/s11999-014-4022-y. Epub 2014 Oct 29.

Non-surgical treatment of lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Sims SE, Miller K, Elfar JC, Hammert WC.
Hand (N Y). 2014 Dec;9(4):419-46. doi: 10.1007/s11552-014-9642-x.

Treatments - non-surgical, injection therapies

Platelet-rich therapies for musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries.
Moraes VY, Lenza M, Tamaoki MJ, Faloppa F, Belloti JC.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Apr 29;4:CD010071. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010071.pub3.

The effect of corticosteroid versus platelet-rich plasma injection therapies for the management of lateral epicondylitis: A systematic review.
Ben-Nafa W, Munro W.
SICOT J. 2018;4:11. doi: 10.1051/sicotj/2017062. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

The efficacy of platelet-rich plasma on tendon and ligament healing: A systematic review and meta-analysis with bias assessment.
Chen X, Jones IA, Park C, Vangsness CT Jr.
Am J Sports Med. 2017 Dec 1:363546517743746. doi: 10.1177/0363546517743746. [Epub ahead of print]

A systematic review of the concept and clinical applications of bone marrow aspirate concentrate in tendon pathology.
Imam MA, Holton J, Horriat S, Negida AS, Grubhofer F, Gupta R, Narvani A, Snow M.
SICOT J. 2017;3:58. doi: 10.1051/sicotj/2017039. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Platelet rich plasma versus steroid on lateral epicondylitis: meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
Mi B, Liu G, Zhou W, Lv H, Liu Y, Wu Q, Liu J.
Phys Sportsmed. 2017 May;45(2):97-104. doi: 10.1080/00913847.2017.1297670. Epub 2017 Mar 3.

Comparative effectiveness of botulinum toxin versus non-surgical treatments for treating lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Lin YC, Wu WT, Hsu YC, Han DS, Chang KV.
Clin Rehabil. 2018 Feb;32(2):131-145. doi: 10.1177/0269215517702517. Epub 2017 Mar 28.

No evidence for the use of stem cell therapy for tendon disorders: a systematic review.
Pas HI, Moen MH, Haisma HJ, Winters M.
Br J Sports Med. 2017 Jul;51(13):996-1002. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-096794. Epub 2017 Jan 11.

Local corticosteroid versus autologous blood injections in lateral epicondylitis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Sirico F, Ricca F, DI Meglio F, Nurzynska D, Castaldo C, Spera R, Montagnani S.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2017 Jun;53(3):483-491. doi: 10.23736/S1973-9087.16.04252-0. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Platelet-rich plasma in tendon-related disorders: results and indications.
Filardo G, Di Matteo B, Kon E, Merli G, Marcacci M.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2016 Sep 24. [Epub ahead of print]

A meta-analysis of the effect of corticosteroid injection for enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin.
Claessen FM, Heesters BA, Chan JJ, Kachooei AR, Ring D.
J Hand Surg Am. 2016 Oct;41(10):988-998.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2016.07.097. Epub 2016 Aug 18.

A systematic review of dextrose prolotherapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain.
Hauser RA, Lackner JB, Steilen-Matias D, Harris DK.
Clin Med Insights Arthritis Musculoskelet Disord. 2016 Jul 7;9:139-59.doi: 10.4137/CMAMD.S39160. eCollection 2016.

Efficacy and safety of autologous blood products compared with corticosteroid injections in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Qian X, Lin Q, Wei K, Hu B, Jing P, Wang J.
PM R. 2016 Aug;8(8):780-91. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2016.02.008. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

Injection therapies for lateral epicondylalgia: a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis.
Dong W, Goost H, Lin XB, Burger C, Paul C, Wang ZL, Kong FL, Welle K, Jiang ZC, Kabir K.
Br J Sports Med. 2016 Aug;50(15):900-8. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2014-094387. Epub 2015 Sep 21.

Platelet-rich plasma versus autologous blood versus steroid injection in lateral epicondylitis: systematic review and network meta-analysis.
Arirachakaran A, Sukthuayat A, Sisayanarane T, Laoratanavoraphong S, Kanchanatawan W, Kongtharvonskul J.
J Orthop Traumatol. 2016 Jun;17(2):101-12. doi: 10.1007/s10195-015-0376-5. Epub 2015 Sep 11.

Platelet-rich-plasma injections in treating lateral epicondylosis: a review of the recent evidence.
Murray DJ, Javed S, Jain N, Kemp S, Watts AC.
J Hand Microsurg. 2015 Dec;7(2):320-325. Epub 2015 Jul 8.

Efficacy of platelet-rich plasma injections in pain associated with chronic tendinopathy: A systematic review.
Balasubramaniam U, Dissanayake R, Annabell L.
Phys Sportsmed. 2015 Jul;43(3):253-61. doi: 10.1080/00913847.2015.1005544. Epub 2015 Jan 20.

Strong evidence against platelet-rich plasma injections for chronic lateral epicondylar tendinopathy: a systematic review.
de Vos RJ, Windt J, Weir A.
Br J Sports Med. 2014 Jun;48(12):952-6. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-093281. Epub 2014 Feb 21.

Comparative effectiveness of injection therapies in lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Krogh TP, Bartels EM, Ellingsen T, Stengaard-Pedersen K, Buchbinder R, Fredberg U, Bliddal H, Christensen R.
Am J Sports Med. 2013 Jun;41(6):1435-46. doi: 10.1177/0363546512458237. Epub 2012 Sep 12.

The effect of platelet-rich plasma on clinical outcomes in lateral epicondylitis.
Ahmad Z, Brooks R, Kang SN, Weaver H, Nunney I, Tytherleigh-Strong G, Rushton N.
Arthroscopy. 2013 Nov;29(11):1851-62. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2013.07.272. Epub 2013 Sep 21.

Treating lateral epicondylitis with corticosteroid injections or non-electrotherapeutical physiotherapy: a systematic review.
Olaussen M, Holmedal O, Lindbaek M, Brage S, Solvang H.
BMJ Open. 2013 Oct 29;3(10):e003564. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003564.

Corticosteroid and other injections in the management of tendinopathies: a review.
Hart L.
Clin J Sport Med. 2011 Nov;21(6):540-1. doi: 10.1097/01.jsm.0000407929.35973.b9.

Treatment of refractory pain with botulinum toxins--an evidence-based review.
Jabbari B, Machado D.
Pain Med. 2011 Nov;12(11):1594-606. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2011.01245.x. Epub 2011 Sep 29.

Injection of botulinum toxin for treatment of chronic lateral epicondylitis: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Kalichman L, Bannuru RR, Severin M, Harvey W.
Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Jun;40(6):532-8. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2010.07.002. Epub 2010 Sep 6.

The efficacy of botulinum toxin type A in managing chronic musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review and meta analysis.
Zhang T, Adatia A, Zarin W, Moitri M, Vijenthira A, Chu R, Thabane L, Kean W.
Inflammopharmacology. 2011 Feb;19(1):21-34. doi: 10.1007/s10787-010-0069-x. Epub 2010 Nov 13.

Treatments - non-surgical, physical therapies

Deep transverse friction massage for treating lateral elbow or lateral knee tendinitis.
Loew LM, Brosseau L, Tugwell P, Wells GA, Welch V, Shea B, Poitras S, De Angelis G, Rahman P.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 8;11:CD003528. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003528.pub2.

Orthotic devices for the treatment of tennis elbow.
Struijs PA, Smidt N, Arola H, Dijk vC, Buchbinder R, Assendelft WJ.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(1):CD001821.

Is wrist splint more effective than forearm band for lateral epicondylitis?
Meissner A, Vives MI, Román J, Meissner A.
Medwave. 2017 Dec 28;17(9):e7124. doi: 10.5867/medwave.2017.09.7124. Spanish, English.

Effectiveness of myofascial release in treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review.
Laimi K, Mäkilä A, Bärlund E, Katajapuu N, Oksanen A, Seikkula V, Karppinen J, Saltychev M.
Clin Rehabil. 2018 Apr;32(4):440-450. doi: 10.1177/0269215517732820. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

The effectiveness of neural mobilization for neuro-musculoskeletal conditions: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Basson A, Olivier B, Ellis R, Coppieters M, Stewart A, Mudzi W.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2017 Sep;47(9):593-615. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2017.7117. Epub 2017 Jul 13.

Are passive physical modalities effective for the management of common soft tissue injuries of the elbow? A systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration.
Dion S, Wong JJ, Côté P, Yu H, Sutton D, Randhawa K, Southerst D, Varatharajan S, Stern PJ, Nordin M, Chung C, D'Angelo K, Dresser J, Brown C, Menta R, Ammendolia C, Shearer HM, Stupar M, Ameis A, Mior S, Carroll LJ, Jacobs C, Taylor-Vaisey A.
Clin J Pain. 2017 Jan;33(1):71-86.

Effectiveness of the eccentric exercise therapy in physically active adults with symptomatic shoulder impingement or lateral epicondylar tendinopathy: A systematic review.
Ortega-Castillo M, Medina-Porqueres I.
J Sci Med Sport. 2016 Jun;19(6):438-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2015.06.007. Epub 2015 Jun 15. 

Efficacy of physical therapy for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis: a meta-analysis.
Weber C, Thai V, Neuheuser K, Groover K, Christ O.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2015 Aug 25;16:223. doi: 10.1186/s12891-015-0665-4.

Evidence for the effectiveness of electrophysical modalities for treatment of medial and lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review.
Dingemanse R, Randsdorp M, Koes BW, Huisstede BM.
Br J Sports Med. 2014 Jun;48(12):957-65. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091513. Epub 2013 Jan 18.

Is eccentric exercise an effective treatment for lateral epicondylitis? A systematic review.
Cullinane FL, Boocock MG, Trevelyan FC.
Clin Rehabil. 2014 Jan;28(1):3-19. doi: 10.1177/0269215513491974. Epub 2013 Jul 23.

Does effectiveness of exercise therapy and mobilisation techniques offer guidance for the treatment of lateral and medial epicondylitis? A systematic review.
Hoogvliet P, Randsdorp MS, Dingemanse R, Koes BW, Huisstede BM.
Br J Sports Med. 2013 Nov;47(17):1112-9. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091990. Epub 2013 May 24.

The use of joint mobilization to improve clinical outcomes in hand therapy: a systematic review of the literature.
Heiser R, O'Brien VH, Schwartz DA.
J Hand Ther. 2013 Oct-Dec;26(4):297-311; quiz 311. doi: 10.1016/j.jht.2013.07.004. Epub 2013 Sep 14.

Effectiveness of different methods of resistance exercises in lateral epicondylosis--a systematic review.
Raman J, MacDermid JC, Grewal R.
J Hand Ther. 2012 Jan-Mar;25(1):5-25; quiz 26. doi: 10.1016/j.jht.2011.09.001. Epub 2011 Nov 9.

Treatments - non-surgical, acupuncture

Acupuncture for lateral elbow pain.
Green S, Buchbinder R, Barnsley L, Hall S, White M, Smidt N, Assendelft W.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(1):CD003527.

Acupuncture for lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review.
Tang H, Fan H, Chen J, Yang M, Yi X, Dai G, Chen J, Tang L, Rong H, Wu J, Liang F.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:861849. doi: 10.1155/2015/861849. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

Analgesic effect of manual acupuncture and laser acupuncture for lateral epicondylalgia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Chang WD, Lai PT, Tsou YA.
Am J Chin Med. 2014;42(6):1301-14. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X14500815.

Treatments - non-surgical, other

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for treating lateral elbow pain in adults.
Pattanittum P, Turner T, Green S, Buchbinder R.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 May 31;5:CD003686. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003686.pub2.

Shock wave therapy for lateral elbow pain.
Buchbinder R, Green SE, Youd JM, Assendelft WJ, Barnsley L, Smidt N.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Oct 19;(4):CD003524.




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Centre for Evidence Based Hand Surgery

The University of Nottingham
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Nottingham, NG7 2UH

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