Frequently asked questions
What is the PRIDE Study research collaboration?
We invited institutions worldwide to contribute
data that would allow us to investigate the impact of antiviral (neuraminidase inhibitor) use on patient outcomes (severe illness, complications and mortality) of A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic influenza virus infection.
We have received 81 datasets from 38 countries
with a total sample size of 170,858 influenza patients. We have so far completed and published the IPD meta-analyses investigating the association between neuraminidase inhibitor antivirals and A(H1N1)pdm09-related mortality
(published in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine), and A(H1N1)pdm09-related pneumonia (published in Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses).
The article along with the commentary can be found on The Lancet Respiratory Medicine’s website.
View a word-processed copy of the published manuscript.
The article reporting findings from the IPD
meta-analysis investigating the association between neuraminidase inhibitor antivirals and
A(H1N1)pdm09-related pneumonia can be found
on Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses’ website.
The study protocol was registered with the PROSPERO register of systematic reviews (registration number: CRD42011001273).
Who owns the PRIDE Study data?
Although the PRIDE study pooled dataset is being held securely within The University of Nottingham for the purpose of standardisation and analysis, it is the property of individual research groups and as such data will not be disclosed to any third party.
Once we have published all the findings of the IPD analysis, all PRIDE study collaborators will discuss whether they would be happy to allow other researchers (both within and outside the collaboration) to validate our findings on request and under a data sharing agreement.
Please bear in mind that all PRIDE collaborators will need to agree for sharing of the anonymised pooled dataset to take place for the sole purpose of verifying the analyses conducted in Nottingham (not for the purposes of secondary research); and this will be subject to approval from individual institutional review boards.
Once all analyses related to the effectiveness of antivirals have been completed, all PRIDE collaborators will be invited to discuss whether they would be happy to allow the cnsortium to undertake secondary analyses (for example, exploring the effectiveness of antibiotics and corticosteroids).
Will findings from this study be published in a peer-reviewed journal?
We intend to publish all results from this study in peer-reviewed journals. The responsibility for data analysis and preparation of manuscripts lies with the Health Protection and Influenza Research Group at the University of Nottingham.
Draft manuscripts and appropriate supplementary material have been/will always be circulated widely to all authors (including data contributors) for comment/agreement before submission to a peer reviewed journal. Authorship for contributors of individual datasets will be as part of the PRIDE study consortium.
Two investigators from each participating institution are included within the PRIDE study consortium as authors on any publication arising from the consortium. With regard to individual named authorship, ultimately we have to adhere to the rulings and adjudications of individual journals.
We have already conducted a systematic review of published studies on this topic, which has been published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases. Our key finding was that early antiviral use was associated with a significant reduction in mortality compared to late or no antiviral use.
Our primary analysis based an Individual Participant Data (IPD) pooled approach also found that NAI treatment was associated with a reduction in mortality in adult patients hospitalised with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09.
Our second manuscript using the same IPD approach found that early NAI treatment of patients hospitalised with A (H1N1)pdm09 virus infection did not reduce the likelihood of influenza-related pneumonia (IRP), when compared to no treatment. However, in patients who developed IRP, early NAI treatment, when compared to later NAI treatment, reduced the likelihood of mortality and needing ventilatory support.
Our third manuscript using the same IPD approach found that in a population with confirmed or suspected A(H1N1)pdm09 and at high risk of hospitalisation, outpatient or community-based NAI treatment significantly reduced the likelihood of requiring hospital admission.
What protocol will be followed when ascribing order of authorship on any publications based on this work?
Due to the potentially large number of willing collaborators (so far we have about 60 interested groups), the study's authorship will be presented as follows: Muthuri, Leonardi-Bee, Venkatesan, Van-Tam, Myles on behalf of the PRIDE study group and name all authors in the PRIDE Study group either as a footnote or before acknowledgments (following journal protocols). This is in keeping with the existing practice for large collaborative meta-analysis and IPD analysis projects.
Will the pooled anonymised dataset be made available to other researchers within the collaboration for validation?
Analysis plans, results and draft manuscripts have been and will be shared with all PRIDE consortium members but at this stage only the Health Protection and Influenza Research Group, University of Nottingham have access to the pooled anonymised dataset.
Ideally, in the spirit of transparency, we would have a publicly accessible pooled dataset so that other researchers can validate our analyses. In reality though, we may not be given permission by individual research groups within the PRIDE consortium or their local ethics boards to share this data even in a pooled format.
We will revisit this discussion with all our collaborators once we have completed all our planned analyses
Who is funding this project?
The study is taking place through an unrestricted educational grant funding from F. Hoffmann-La Roche but is being undertaken fully independently of the company, which has had/will have: no input to the project design; no access to any of the data; no role in analysis or data interpretation; no preview of the study results; and no opportunity to preview or comment on any manuscripts arising from the work.
View the ROCHE contract/letter of clarification
Can I still contribute my data towards the PRIDE study?
We are no longer actively recruiting new collaborators for the PRIDE study.