One Virology


The two major orbiviruses of veterinary importance are Africah horse sickness virus (AHSV) and bluetongue virus (BTV). Both cause severe disease - AHSV in horses and BTV in ruminant species - and both are transmitted by Culicoides biting midges.

African horse sickness virus

What is African horse sickness virus?

Bluetongue virus

What is bluetongue virus?

Only the minority of cases develop the blue tongue for which the virus was named. It’s a result of damage to blood vessels and tissue swelling, which reduce the amount of oxygenated blood reaching the tongue, leading to cyanosis.

The virus was first described in Africa in the late 18th Century and has since been identified in Australia, the United States, Asia and Europe. In 2007/8, the virus reached the UK from Europe when infected midges were blown across the English Channel.

Although the virus was eradicated after that outbreak, the UK remains on high alert for it re-occurring. There are vaccines available, but a major challenge for virus diagnosis and control is that there are at least 27 distinct serotypes.

Our research and its impact

Professor Peter Mertens has focused his research on BTV for many years. While at the Pirbright Institute, his group developed the diagnostic assays and molecular epidemiology systems that were used to identify and track virus movements during bluetongue outbreaks in Europe. This played an important part in the eradication of the virus from the UK in 2008.

Peter also played a central role in determining the atomic structure of the bluetongue virus core particle.

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One Virology

University of Nottingham