VAX-TRUST at the University of Nottingham

VAX-TRUST ("Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy in Europe") was an international and interdisciplinary project that utilised social science methods and approaches to explore the broad societal phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. The aim of VAX-TRUST was to improve our understanding of vaccine hesitancy and to develop evidence-based educational interventions for healthcare professionals and healthcare students. The project was funded by the EU Horizon 2020 programme.

VAX-TRUST was a multi-stage project that aimed to deepen our understanding of parental vaccine hesitancy. The stages of the project included an analysis of media discourse around vaccines, qualitative interviews with parents and healthcare professionals, ethnographic observation of childhood immunisation appointments, and the development of evidence-based tools to help healthcare professionals maintain positive communication with parents who may be cautious about their children receiving routine vaccinations.


The stages of VAX-TRUST are outlined below. Stage one was completed in late 2022, stage two was completed in July 2023 and stage three was completed in February 2024.

Our online intervention was created in stage two of VAX-TRUST.

Stage one: Situation analysis and research into vaccine hesitancy in the UK, focusing on the East Midlands region

Situation analysis of vaccine hesitancy in the East Midlands


Analysis of media coverage related to vaccination


Qualitative research into vaccine hesitancy in the East Midlands


Stage two: Using the knowledge and understanding of local vaccine hesitancy generated in stage one, design and evaluate evidence-based interventions

Design and implement tailored and evidence-based interventions


Evaluation of interventions


Stage three: Based on the evidence generated in stage one and two, design and develop recommendations for future interventions and public health policy


Provide recommendations






Project funding

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No 965280.

Contact us

To get in touch with the Nottingham team, please contact Dr Anderson at or Dr Tristan Emerson at

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University of Nottingham
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