Studying Effectively

Referencing other sources

Reference styles do vary. The examples on this page may not match the preference of your School or Department - please check the guidelines from your School or Department to ensure you are following the preferred style.


Required information:

  • Conference editor or organisation
  • (Year of publication)
  • Title of the conference paper
  • Title of the conference
  • Place where the conference took place
  • Date the conference was held
  • Publisher


Partlow, R.B. and Moore, H.T. eds. (1980) D. H. Lawrence, the man who lived. D. H. Lawrence conference, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, April 1979. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Further help with referencing conference proceedings


Required information:

  • Name of authorising organisation
  • (Year of publication)
  • Number and title of standard
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher


Briitsh Standards Institution. (2009) BS EN ISO 9001:2009 Quality management systems. Requirements. London: BSI

Further help with referencing standards


Required information:

  • Applicant
  • Title
  • Inventor(s)
  • Title
  • Patent application number
  • Publication date


Control Devices, Incorporated. Ball valve. Inventors: Joseph L. Krechel, Michael J. Purvis. US patent application US 05/621,956. 1975-10-14. 

Further help with referencing patents

Theses and dissertations

Required information:

  • Author
  • (Year)
  • Title
  • Designation
  • (Level, e.g. MSc, PhD.)
  • Institution


Beesley, D. (2011) Making sense of reasons: prospects for an interpretivist account of practical reasons. Thesis (PhD), University of Nottingham.

Further help with referencing theses

Viewing RSS feeds


Further reading

Reading and interpreting sources and data


People who can help

Talk to someone in your school or a specialist support service



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