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2.3.7 New types of team

In addition to the traditional types of teams or groups outlined above, recent years have seen the growth of interest in two other important types of team: ‘self-managed teams’ and ‘self-organising teams’.

During the 1990s many organisations in the UK became interested in notions of empowerment and, often as a consequence, set up self-managed or empowered teams. An Industrial Society Survey (1995) commented:


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2.3.3 The matrix team

In a matrix team, staff report to different managers for different aspects of their work. Matrix structures are often, but not exclusively, found in projects. Staff will be responsible to the project manager for their work on the project while their functional line manager will be responsible for other aspects of their work such as appraisal, training and career development, and ‘routine’ tasks. This matrix project structure is represented in Figure 2.


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2.5 Structure-property relationships

Given the large number of possible configurations in polymers, what guides to likely properties are available? We have already seen some of the effects on properties of changing tacticity, for example, which can affect crystallinity. Control of copolymer structure, too, can have substantial effects on their thermal properties.


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2.4 Chain conformations

The repeat units or chains shown in the previous figures are all static representations of real chains and they are therefore of limited use. The key idea we need to explore real chains, and their influence on properties is that of the conformation of a chain. A single conformation is just a single shape that a chain can adopt, so that for example, when a polyethylene chain is shown as a linear zig-zag, this is one possible conformation. Static formulae do not show an important aspect
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2.3.1 Structural isomerism

In the saturated hydrocarbons, whose structural formulae are shown in Figure 16, it is not possible to form distinct isomers with just three or less carbon atoms linked together. There is only one way in which one carbon and four hydrogen atoms can be linked together, the single compound being methane, CH4. A simila
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Acknowledgements

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3.2 Why quantitative models

The stage of choosing a model could include consideration of diagrams or conceptual models as well as quantitative models. So when should you consider a quantitative model as the appropriate next step? There are four main conditions that are necessary for a quantitative model to be an appropriate choice.

  1. At the chosen level of aggregation, all the significant features or behaviours of the system must be adequately quantified, i.e. measured. If this co
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Stage 2: The situation analysed

The first step is to develop a picture (called in soft systems terminology a rich picture) that encapsulates all the elements that people think are involved in the problem. Once the rich picture has been drawn, the analyst will attempt to extract ‘issues’ and key tasks.

Issues are areas of contention within the problem situation. Key tasks are the essential jobs that must be undertaken within the problem situation.

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1.9 Increasing complication, complexity and risk: summary

The three levels of change problem, simplicity, complication and complexity, can be associated with craft, engineering and systems engineering knowledge. The three categories of change problem represent different levels of uncertainty of what needs to be done and how to do it. The greater uncertainty brings increased risk. Although we tend to be risk averse we will take on greater risk if the returns are commensurate with doing so.

Human experience can be divided into three worlds. The
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1.5 Increasing complication, complexity and risk: the underlying relationship

Figure 3 showed five commonly encountered problems of effecting different types of change. These are notionally located on a spectrum of change that ranges from no change at all, to complete revolution. The relationship suggested on the figure is that as the degree of change – represented
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Acknowledgements

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4.5 Fibre in LANs

Fibre has been slower to be exploited in LANs than in the core transmission network, for similar reasons to the delay in the use of fibre in the access network, but as the data rate demanded of LANs has increased, the case for using fibre has strengthened.

Although Ethernet specifications (IEEE 802.3 series) have contained standards for the use of fibre backbones for some time, it was with the development of Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10 GbE) standards that fibre became t
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4.6 What matters?

When the laptop is confirmed to be uncompromised, it is interesting that none of the characters cheers, although they all seem to be relieved. In other words, when the statement comes up, ‘laptop is uncompromised’, people seem to think that is ‘good’, the outcome is fine. They seem to have forgotten that the technician is probably dead at the time. So, in their deliberations, a person's life is forgotten. I am sure that, if they were reminded of it, they would, of course, say that thi
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References

Berry, W. L., Hill, T. and Klompmaker, J. E. (1999) ‘Aligning marketing and manufacturing strategies with the market’, International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 37, No. 16, pp. 3599–618.
The Chartered Institute of Marketing, Marketing Glossary, accessed 9 July 2008.

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8.3.6 Deep silicon etching

MEMS structures often require etching to a much greater depth than is needed for microelectronics. A rate of 1–2 μm min−1 may be quite sufficient for making transistors less than 1 mm deep, but to etch through 600 mm of silicon to form an accelerometer would take all day. The advent of MEMS and wafer-level packaging applications, therefore, brought a need for yet faster anisotropic etches, requiring advances both in the process and in the etching equipment.

Capacitive co
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7.4.3 Chemical vapour deposition (CVD)

If step coverage or equipment cost is more critical than purity, then PVD is supplanted by CVD.

There are many variants on the chemical vapour deposition technique, but the concept is simple: gases adsorb onto the wafer surface where a chemical reaction forms a solid product. Any other products are gases, or at least volatile liquids, and are pumped away.

There is one obvious restriction: the wafer surface must be the only place where the reaction can occur. If it is not, particle
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7.3.5 Ion beam deposition

PVD still has some limitations, however. It must operate in a gaseous atmosphere (to provide the plasma) so is not well suited to the long-throw, directional line-of-sight mode accessible to low-pressure evaporation. Also, if magnets behind the target are used to generate a magnetic field for magnetron sputtering the technique cannot be easily used to deposit magnetic metals such as nickel and cobalt, owing to the influence from the magnetic field on the deposition process.

In an altern
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7.3.3 Plasmas

More control can be achieved in vapour deposition if a plasma is generated. A plasma is simply a gas where a proportion of the molecules have been ionised. The ions remain in an uneasy equilibrium with the electrons they have released, prevented from recombining only because the electrons are hot and fast-moving, and so are difficult to trap.

Plasmas are widely used in materials processing, with pressure ranging from 10−3 mbar to 1 mbar and typically up to 1% of the molecul
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1.1 Overview

Why are disasters important? They attract public attention because there is great loss of life, or because the event happened suddenly and quite unexpectedly, or because the accident occurred to a new project that had been regarded as completely safe. Certainly, the aspect of suddenness is one that features in many catastrophes, and indeed, it is this feature by which a catastrophe is defined.

Great disasters are always traumatic, especially for those who endure them and come through al
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