4.13.4 Volume

The large volume of delegated legislation produced every year (some 3,000 SIs annually) means that it is very difficult for Members of Parliament, let alone the general public, to keep up to date with the present law. This is exacerbated by the fact that delegated legislation is made in private, unlike Acts of Parliament which are made following public debates in Parliament.


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Introduction

In this unit, we will consider the nature of businesses and the principal forms of business organisation. The themes covered in Part A are company, business and capital; and in Part B, business mediums, sole traders, partnerships or firms, and assets and liabilities.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Company law and practice (W223)


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1.2 Balancing the right to privacy and other rights

Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights protects freedom of expression. Section 12 of the Human Rights Act 1998 requires the courts in the UK to have particular regard to the importance of the right to freedom of expression. However, freedom of expression and the right to privacy frequently collide. This can be illustrated by reference to the American case of Anonsen v Donohue (1993). In this case a woman revealed on national television that her husband had raped and impr
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3.6 The terms of the European Convention on Human Rights

In 1952 the HCPs agreed that the European Convention on Human Rights should be extended to cover additional rights and freedoms. At the time of drafting the original treaty there were heated debates about whether rights relating to property, education and democratic participation were fundamental human rights. As a compromise these were omitted from the original treaty. Their later inclusion was achieved by an instrument known as a protocol, which, although much shorter than the original ECHR
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3.2 The evolution of the EU

The EU has grown out of a series of intergovernmental political initiatives which have been expressed in a number of treaties. These treaties form the building blocks that give authority and power to the institutions and law-making bodies of the EU. The process is evolutionary, as treaties are reviewed and amended to reflect both the changing membership and the vision of the EU.

The EU is founded on several treaties:

  1. The treaty that established
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Introduction

In this unit you will analyse the role of European institutions including the European Commission and the European Court of Justice in legal rule making in England and Wales. You will also be introduced to the study skills that you will need in reading legal cases, reading and understanding Acts of Parliament, using the internet to find legal materials, taking notes, creating study diagrams and summarising ideas.

This unit is an adapted extract from the course Author(s): The Open University

6.9 Summary of Part E


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2.1 The history of the common law

Prior to the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, there was no unitary, national legal system. Before 1066 the English legal system involved a mass of oral customary rules, which varied according to region. The law of the Jutes in the south of England, for example, was different from that of the Mercians in the middle of the country (see map below). Each county had its own local court dispensing its own justice in accordance with local customs that varied from community to commun
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3.5.1 Try some yourself

1 Give the appropriate rounding for each of the values below:

  • (a) Carpet floor area = 26.456 sq metres

  • (b) Interest earned = £109.876 5439

  • (c) Bill for £84.90 shared by
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3.1.1 Try some yourself

1 In a supermarket the bill comes to £8.70, and you have discount coupons worth £3.50. The assistant says ‘that will be £12.20 please’. Is she right?

Answer

No.
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1.4.1 Try some yourself

1 Round a measurement of 1.059 metres:

  • (a) to the nearest whole number of metres;

  • (b) to two decimal places;

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1.1 Rounding in daily life

The English mathematician Charles Babbage, father of modern computing, once wrote to Tennyson regarding one of his poems:

‘In your otherwise beautiful poem,’ Babbage wrote, ‘one verse reads,

Every moment dies a man,

Every moment one is born.

‘If this were true, the population of the world would be at a standstill. In truth, the rate of birth is slightly in excess of that of death. I would suggest:


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7.1:Relative and absolute comparisons

The distinction between relative and absolute comparisons is an important one that has run through this Unit. Here, its meaning and significance will be made more explicit. The subsection begins with examples which illustrate the difference between absolute and relative measures, and you will be asked to reflect on why calculating in relative terms is often a better way to make a fair comparison.

Start with a simple example based on comparison of births between countries. In 2002, there
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1.3.5 Generalising the formula for the mean household size

This method of calculating the mean may be summarised as follows.

The frequency of a household size is the number of responses corresponding to that size. The sum of the frequencies is the total number of households.

One use of symbols in mathematics is in provi
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4.1 Understanding the question

Before you can attempt a question, you must read and understand it. This may sound obvious but you will need to know, before you start, what is expected by way of an answer. In particular, you will need to know the meaning of the instructions contained in the question. This section contains a discussion of the precise meanings attached to words like ‘find’, ‘show’, ‘write down’ and ‘determine’ in mathematics questions. The different types of instruction are illustrated by posi
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5 Example of a straightforward subtraction

In the example below of a straightforward subtraction, in every column the digit at the top of the column is bigger than the digit at the bottom. Click on each step in turn to see how to carry out the calculation.

4.8 General equation of a conic

You have already met the parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. So far, you have considered the equation of a conic only when it is in standard form; that is, when the centre of the conic (if it has a centre) is at the origin, and the axes of the conic are parallel to the x- and y-axes. However, most of the conics that arise in calculations are not in standard form.

We have seen that any circle can be described by an equation of the form

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3.2 Post-audio exercises

Exercise 42

Let u and v be the position vectors (6, 8) and (−12, 5), respectively.

  • (a) Sketch u and v on a single diagram. On th
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Management: Perspectives and Practice
HR, Marketing, Finance, Operations and Project Management are all key functions of an organisation. These short audio perspectives give an insight into the roles in these areas and how they interact with the rest of the organisation, with examples of common problems, challenges and difficulties that are faced. This material forms part of The Open University course B716 MBA stage 1: Management: Perspectives and Practice.Author(s): The iTunes U team

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7.3 Ethics and safety

A practising engineer makes ethical decisions, with moral and physical implications of varying magnitudes, on a daily basis. Examples of ethical dilemmas are limitless, ranging from the engineer who takes home the odd pen, file or discarded paper 'for the children', to the engineer who signs off a project without checking the details and identifying a simple arithmetic error of magnitude. The implications of either may be negligible – such as where the cost is more than compensated in unpai
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Rule, approach or aid Comment Cases
The literal rule Uses plain ordinary grammatical meaning of words and avoids judicial law making, but can lead to absurd decisions and injustices and assumes unattainable perfection in draftsmanship Fisher v Bell (1960)