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3.2 What are rights?

The modern discourse of universal human rights has a number of features. The idea that everyone, everywhere has rights refers to the concept that there are certain entitlements justifiably owed to all individuals by virtue of certain features that all human beings have in common. As the nineteenth-century French politician and historian Alexis de Tocqueville put it, the idea of rights ‘removes from any request its supplicant character, and places the one who claims it on the same level as t
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References

Blackhurst, R. (1999) ‘The capacity of the WTO to fulfil its mandate’ in Krueger, A.O. (ed.) The WTO as an International Organization. New Delhi, Oxford University Press.
Finger, J.M. and Schuler, P. (2002) ‘Implementation of WTO commitments: the development challenge’ in Hoekman, B.M., English, P. and Mattoo, A. (eds) Development, Trade and the WTO: A Handbook, Washington, DC, World Bank.

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1.5 Organising information

How confident are you that you know when it is appropriate to cite references (refer to the work of other people) in your written work?

  • 5 – Very confident

  • 4 – Confident

  • 3 – Fairly confident

  • 2 – Not very confident

  • 1 – Not confident at all

How confident do you feel about producing bibliographies (lists of references) in an appropriate format to accompany you
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2.8 Why do (only some) teams succeed?

Clearly, it is not possible to devise a set of rules which, if followed, would lead inexorably to team effectiveness. The determinants of a successful team are complex and not equivalent to following a set of prescriptions. However, the results of poor teamworking can be expensive, so it is useful to draw on research, experience and case studies to explore some general guidelines. What do I mean by ‘team effectiveness'? – the achievement of goals alone? Where do the achievements of indivi
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2.3.6 ‘Horses for courses’

Different team structures have different advantages and disadvantages. A structure may fit a particular task in one organisation better than another. On the next page, Table 1 sets out the strengths and weaknesses of different team structures.

Table 1 Strengths and weaknesses of different structures for project teams


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6.4.1 Materials selection

Among the common thermoplastics available in the mid-1970s, polypropylene appeared as a front runner on grounds of toughness, density and cost Table 9). However, it is subject to creep (being uncrosslinked) and possesses a low tensile modulus of ca. 1500 MN m−2. Its merit index is 12.7 due to the low density of 0.
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6.4 Case history: the Topper boat

Replacement of one polymeric material by another may be undertaken entirely for manufacturing reasons, and this is what happened in the redesign of the Topper dinghy for thermoplastic polymer. The dinghy was originally designed for hand lay-up GRP in 1969 by Ian Proctor, a well known designer of small boats and yachts (Figure 61
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6.3 Materials selection

Good design fulfils the product specification under the required service conditions as well as contributing to the cost effectiveness of its manufacture and maintenance. The product specification itself must be an interpretation of the market needs. Hence good design means giving product appeal at the point of sale. Selecting the polymer is just one stage in this design exercise, both in terms of information on various properties of materials, as well as the detailed evaluation and selection
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Stage 4: Conceptual model

The conceptual (or activity) model contains all the activities that the relevant system would have to perform. The model is usually drawn as a block diagram.


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Stage 7: Option testing (how well will each work?)

While the identified objectives and constraints have been referred to constantly during the development stage, the testing stage of the approach is a more formal analysis of each option. Its objective is to determine whether:

  • the option will meet the operational objectives

  • it is technically feasible

  • it is organisationally feasible

  • it will meet the financial objectives.


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4.5.1 Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet specifies four categories:

  • 1000BASE-SX, for transmission over multimode fibre using an LED in the 800 nm window (the wavelength is specified to be between 770 and 860 nm). The specification is for up to 275 m on 62.5/125 mm multimode fibre, or 550 m on 50/125 mm multimode fibre;

  • 1000BASE-LX, for transmission over multimode or single-mode fibre using a laser in the 1300 nm window (specified to be between 1270 and 1355
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4.4.2 Passive optical networks and Ethernet in the first mile

If FTTH uses a dedicated fibre link between each house and the telephone exchange then each house carries the cost of two sets of terminal equipment: one in the house and one in the exchange.

A significant saving can be made with the passive optical network (PON) configuration (Author(s): The Open University

6.3 Where is the complexity and what is it?

When I reflect on my experiences of child-support, I attribute the properties of mess, complex, or hard-to-understand to the situation. So, are mess, complex, and hard-to-understand the same thing? If they are, why is the course called Managing Complexity, rather than, say, Managing Messes? A glib answer is you might not have been attracted to it because of the everyday meaning of mess. Yet another answer is that complexity is a rich term whose everyday meanings have been further enriched by
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4.6 What matters?

When the laptop is confirmed to be uncompromised, it is interesting that none of the characters cheers, although they all seem to be relieved. In other words, when the statement comes up, ‘laptop is uncompromised’, people seem to think that is ‘good’, the outcome is fine. They seem to have forgotten that the technician is probably dead at the time. So, in their deliberations, a person's life is forgotten. I am sure that, if they were reminded of it, they would, of course, say that thi
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4.1 Background to Vue

This section discusses one of four video case studies used in the T883 course to illustrate some basic concepts of operations management covered by the course.

Vue Entertainment is a relatively young organisation, formed in 2003 with the acquisition of 36 cinemas from the Warner Village chain. At the time of writing (October 2007) it currently operates 579 screens and 130,585 seats over 59 cinemas. It sees its approach as firmly based upon its desire to consistently provide ‘the best
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1 Putting the unit in context

This unit, taken from T883 Business operations: delivering value, is concerned with the management of ‘processes’ – the organised set of resources and related activities that are essential for the delivery of goods and/or services to customers. These processes or ‘operations’ form the very essence of any enterprise, and it is critically important that they are managed well to be effective and efficient.

The full course consists of three main blocks of study:


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8.3.5 Alternative plasma chamber designs: MERIE and ICP

There are several variants of the parallel-plate RIE chamber. For example:

  • The ‘magnetically enhanced’ MERIE, where magnetic fields are used to slow the leakage of plasma to the chamber walls, reducing the operating voltage and improving the power efficiency.

  • ‘Plasma mode’ operation, where the RF voltage is applied to the chamber ceiling and the platen is grounded. This reduces the ion energy at the wafer from hundreds of volts t
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8.3.3 Reactive ion etching: chlorine/argon plasma etching of aluminium

In a reactive ion etch (RIE), a chemical reaction is used to weaken the bonding of the surface of the material and assist the sputtering process. This combines the high rate and selectivity of a gas-phase etch with the directionality of a sputter etch.

For example, consider aluminium etched anisotropically by a Cl2/Ar mixed-gas plasma, which etches at up to 1 μm min−1:

  • Power pumped into the plasma breaks the gases up, rel
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7.3.5 Ion beam deposition

PVD still has some limitations, however. It must operate in a gaseous atmosphere (to provide the plasma) so is not well suited to the long-throw, directional line-of-sight mode accessible to low-pressure evaporation. Also, if magnets behind the target are used to generate a magnetic field for magnetron sputtering the technique cannot be easily used to deposit magnetic metals such as nickel and cobalt, owing to the influence from the magnetic field on the deposition process.

In an altern
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7.3 Depositing metals and alloys

Metal layers are used extensively in device fabrication: to carry current for both power and signals, to apply the voltages that control transistors and generate forces for MEMS, as mirrors and optical coatings, and in magnetic devices for recording media. Different applications might require a continuous film, a long track, multiple thin layers or a plug filling a ‘via hole’ through to a buried layer. The electrical properties resulting from micro structure and composition must be contro
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