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2.2 Three Greek dialogues

Activity 8

Read the excerpts of Plato's Protagoras highlighted in the version attached below. Jot down a few ideas about the final vocabulary that Socrates uses in the dialogue.

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1.9 Final vocabularies in context

As I discussed earlier, there are different ways of looking at things and valuing them, as there are different kinds of things we value. I also suggested that you might, in your arguments, try and value reasons: are they ‘good’ reasons for doing things? We might also be concerned with outcomes, but because outcomes require a route to achieving them, the means or process also needs to be assessed. As we'll see in the next section, Socrates says, in the Platonic dialogues, you might take a
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1.8 ‘Ethics’, ‘ethical’ and authority

There is some confusion over the uses of the terms ‘ethical’ and ‘ethics’. Often people use the adjective ‘ethical’ to signal things that they would expect virtuous people to do. That is they use the word ‘ethical’ instead of ‘good’. Companies, institutions and even governments might claim to have ‘ethical’ policies. Probably such a policy declares the ideology. For example, saying that ‘sustainability is ethical’ may be part of an individual's ethic but it is a ta
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1.4 What is ethics?

I'd like to introduce an idea of ethics based on the work of G. E. Moore, a Cambridge Don who died fifty years ago. Bearing in mind that concerns with ethics date back at least to the Ancient Greeks, you might not be surprised that I bring in some ideas from Moore's Principia Ethica, a text written over 100 years ago but articulated in a particularly clear and plain-speaking style. Moore's take on things is that when ‘good’ and ‘bad’ are involved, then we're in the realm of eth
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6.11 Presenting the case

  • 23. Is the format of presentation appropriate for the audience?

  • 24. Is the case presented in a persuasive way overall?

Hopefully, the analytical work carried out to determine costs, benefits and so on will almost
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6.8 Anticipating the arguments

  • 18. Have the objectives and perspectives of all the key stakeholders concerned with the decision been taken account of in the previous assessment of costs, benefits and risks?

  • 19. What are the reasons that this proposal is preferred over other op
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5.5 Vibrating string: pitches of notes produced by stringed instruments

When a string is bowed, plucked or struck, energy is supplied that starts the string vibrating. The string doesn't just vibrate in one single mode; instead, it vibrates in a combination of several modes simultaneously. The displacement along the string is the superposition of the standing-wave patterns corresponding to those modes. For example, if the string vibrated only in the first and second modes, the displacement at a given instant of time might appear as shown in Author(s): The Open University

3.5.3 Protozoa

Protozoa are microscopic single cell animals. They utilise solid substances and bacteria as a food source. They can only function aerobically, and in a stream which contains little organic degradable matter they can become a predominant microbial type. They play an important part in sewage treatment where they remove free-swimming bacteria and help to produce a clear effluent.

In an aquatic environment, there are three main types of protozoa:

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Art and the Mexican Revolution
In this free course, Art and the Mexican Revolution, you will explore one of Diego Rivera’s key murals which was commissioned by the Mexican government in the period after the Mexican Revolution of 1910-1920. These monumental public artworks, designed to win over the Mexican peasantry and working-class to the new post-revolutionary state, brought Mexican mural artists international acclaim and Rivera was subsequently awarded important commissions in the United States. Yet, due to his commitmen
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

1.5 Tips on character creation

  • Use a journal to build ideas for character.
  • Consider all the influences that go into the making of your character: age, gender, race, nationality, marital status, religion, profession.
  • Know about your character’s inner life: what s/he wants, thinks, remembers, resents, fears, dreams, denies.
  • Know about your character’s behaviour, what s/he wears, buys, eats, says, works at and plays at.
  • Know how your character speaks and how
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3.4 Proving God's existence

Deists had at their disposal three traditional ways of arguing for the existence of God.

The most popular in the late eighteenth century was the argument from design (also known as the teleological argument, from the Greek word telos, meaning end or purpose). This argument begins with an observation: the world around us is not chaotic but ordered and harmonious. Some examples: whenever the tide comes in it goes out again shortly after; without an ability to inhale a
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1.9 Aberdulais Falls and the local community

Other potential areas of conflict are with the local authority and local residents, who see the site as of value to themselves and have differing views about how it should be utilised.

The desire to accommodate, to some extent, the demands of the local community, and to engage with that community, has led to a number of initiatives. Examples of these include the use of the site's facilities for hosting lectures, meetings, keep-fit groups, etc. These initiatives can be of use to local bu
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2.1 ‘Every painter paints himself’?

Art history methods of biography or ‘Life’ writing attempt to link an artist to his art. Why do we need to know about an artist's life to know about his art in the first place? Why might Helen Langdon want to explain Caravaggio the man and not just his world or his art? Behind this questions lies a problem central to art history. Do we need to know about artists to know about their art?

Martin Kemp gives the link between an artist and his art a historical comple
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References

Blackburn, S. (1994) The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Blake, W. (1970) Songs of Innocence and of Experience, ed. G. Keynes, Oxford, Oxford University Press (first published 1789, 1794).
Brann, E.T.H. (1991) The World of the Imagination, Lanham, Maryland, Rowman and Littlefield.

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References

Leonard, T. (1984) Intimate voices 1965–1983, Galloping Dog Press.
MacLean, S. (trans. Crichton Smith, I.) (1970) Poems to Eimhir, Northern House.
MacLean, S. (1981) Spring tide and Neap tide: selected poems 1932–72, Canongate.
MacLean, S. (1985) Ris a'Bhruthaich: the criticism and prose writings, Acair.
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand that 'texts' are not restricted to the written word

  • understand war memorials as text

  • interpret a visual text at a basic level.


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4.5 The function of consciousness

There is another problem I want to mention briefly. What is the function of consciousness? What difference does it make to have phenomenally conscious experiences?

This may seem an odd question. Surely, the answer is obvious: the function of consciousness is to provide us with information about our environment – about colours, shapes, sounds and so on. But this is too swift. We do not need to have conscious experiences in order to acquire perceptual information about our enviro
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2.5 Morality play or tragedy?

Pity and fear are the emotions that, according to the Greek philosopher Aristotle, are aroused by the experience of watching a tragedy. At the start of this chapter we asked whether Doctor Faustus is a late sixteenth-century morality play, designed to teach its audience about the spiritual dangers of excessive learning and ambition. When the play was published, first in 1604 and then in 1616, it was called a ‘tragical history’; if we take ‘history’ here to refer not to a partic
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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