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6.5.1 Presumptions

When determining the meaning of particular words the courts will make certain presumptions about the law. If the statute clearly states the opposite, then a presumption will not apply and it is said that the presumption is rebutted. The main presumptions are:

  1. A presumption against change in the common law.

    It is assumed that the common law will apply unless Parliament has made it plain in the Act that the common law has been altered.

  2. <
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1.3.1: The mean and the median

This subsection looks at two ways of finding an ‘average’. The first produces the mean, which is what was originally meant by ‘average’, and what most people think of when they talk about an average. The second gives the median, which might more accurately be described as a ‘typical’ or middle value. They will be illustrated using the following batch of heights.

The heights in metres (measured to the nearest centimetre) of a group of seven people are as follows
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1.2.3: A typical shopping basket

This subsection discusses using a typical basket of goods to analyse price changes over time. However, what is meant by ‘typical’?

Think back to the last time you went shopping. What did you buy? The electric light bulbs that you have just stocked up on are unlikely to be in your shopping basket next week, whereas milk may well be there every week. And there may be items—a new toothbrush for example—that you buy from time to time, but not this week.

To monitor price change
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7 OpenMark quiz

Hopefully, thinking about how your solution to a mathematical problem might be marked, will help you to produce better solutions for yourself, as well as for somebody else. Now try the quiz  and see if there are any areas you need to work on.


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6.5 Solutions to ‘making a lawn’

Learning from the marking of the previous questions, write out a good solution to the following problem.

Example 18: Making a lawn

Suppose you have some friends who are planning to put a new lawn in their garden. The lawn is to be 12 m by 14 m and they have a choice of either laying turf or sow
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6.3 Solving the riddle of St Ives

Write out your own solution to the following problem.

Example 17: St Ives

As I was going to St Ives

I met a man with seven wives.

Each wife had seven sacks.

Each sack had seven cats.

Each cat had seven kits.

Kits,
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3.2.1 Try some yourself

1 You are planning to paint three rooms with total wall areas of 56, 38 and 40 square metres, using paint that comes in tins which claim to cover 15 square metres per tin. How many tins will you need for each room? And how many in total?

<
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3.2 Using formulas

Formulas are important because they describe general relationships, rather than specific numerical ones. For example, the tins of paint formula applies to every wall. To use such a formula you need to substitute specific values for the general terms, as the following examples show.

Example 8

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3.4 Decreasing by a percentage

Discount can be calculated in the same way as an increase by a percentage. For example, £8 with 15% discount means you actually pay

  £8 less (15% of £8)

  15% of 8 = × 8 = Author(s): The Open University

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