3.4 Understanding legal rules

We have seen that legislative bodies can change legal rules as policy makers initiate reforms, but this is not the only way in which legal rules develop. Courts also have a role in interpreting statutes according to legal principles, and their decisions (which are referred to as ‘case law’) must be taken into account before we can confidently state that a particular position is ‘the law’. Court decisions are also subject to appeal and review, so the law does not remain static. The fac
Author(s): The Open University

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Teaching and Learning - Full Brainwash
We often speak of changes in design process due to an application of computers. But in my opinion we more often rather speak of lack of changes. Lets hope that some day we will be able to witness full integrity and compatibility of design process and tools applied in it. Quite possible such an integrity may occur in the cyberspace. Nevertheless before that could happen some changes within the teaching methods at faculties of architecture, where despite great numbers of computer equipment used, t
Author(s): Aleksander Asanowicz

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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

2.4 Analysis of nucleic acids by electrophoresis and hybridisation

Nucleic acids can be separated according to size by gel electrophoresis, most commonly performed using a horizontal gel (Figure 7a). This is in contrast to the vertical gel electrophoresis set-up, which is generally used for analysis of proteins.

The size of DNA molecules is usually expressed in terms of the number of
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