Learning outcomes

After studying this Unit you should be able to:

  • demonstrate your understanding of how social welfare policy started to evolve at a national level after World War II;

  • locate information relevant to social welfare through reference to a range of sources;

  • evaluate the reliability of information from different sources.


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2 A day in the life of a hospital ward

In 1996, we visited Ward 29, one of two gastroenterology wards in the medical unit, and recorded the views of patients and staff. The ward has 24 beds. Its patients were women and men, across a wide age range, suffering from digestive disorders – for example, stomach ulcers, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, cancers of the digestive system or problems with liver function brought on by alcohol abuse. Because it was winter the ward had more elderly people than it would have at other times
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1.1 Leeds General Infirmary

To explore care in the setting of an acute hospital, I visited Leeds General Infirmary (LGI) in the winter of 1996. The hospital provides a service of medical and surgical care for local people and, because it is a specialist teaching hospital with a medical school attached, patients are referred from all over the region for specialist advice, treatment and care. The hospital occupies a bewilderingly large, sprawling site in the centre of Leeds. It is a mix of the old and the new, and at the
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1.5.1 Agreeing who to be

So far I have focused on one-to-one interactions. Yet ‘defining a scene’ is often a group effort. Goffman says this involves teamwork, with all participants, in effect, agreeing to act and speak within an overall frame of reference. He suggests that it works like a theatrical play in which everyone has taken on a part within the scene. To play your part means setting aside all those aspects of yourself which are not relevant to your role. The scene works only because everyone plays their
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1.2.2 Everyday scenes

Activity 3: Openings to everyday scene

0 hours 5 minutes

Think of examples of everyday scenes, at home or a work, which could be radically reshaped by an opening remark


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Acknowledgements

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

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6.2 The body, the lungs and oxygen

The figure shows a simple image of how the lungs absorb oxygen from the air.

Figure 11
Figure 11 Air and blood flow

Air contains several differ
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3 Practice links

You may have the opportunity to work with a service user who is considering entering residential care. Perhaps you can support them by helping them to identify priorities and accompany them on visits to potential homes. A joint visit enables you to assess with them how well a particular establishment is equipped to meet their needs. In considering the suitability of residential placements, you will find it helpful to think about the features of care environments that you met in this unit. Als
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4.2 What pressures for change were exerted?

The emphasis is very much on the impetus individuals gave to change. Jim Nickson in particular seems to have been a man with energy and vision. The parents set up their own services where they were missing – a holiday chalet, swimming sessions, a club where young people could meet, above all the long-established Welfare Visitor Scheme. They campaigned for services in the community as an alternative to hospital admission. A strong theme is that work they started was often taken up by the loc
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6.2 Concepts of Illness

Sontag (1979) wrote about the metaphors we use to describe illness. Metaphors are ways of speaking about something as if it were something else which is imaginatively but not literally applicable, for instance calling a new moon a sickle. Sontag was mainly concerned with life-threatening illnesses such as cancer and AIDS, and how the metaphors we use can serve to stigmatise the sufferers, for instance referring to AIDS as a gay plague. But people use metaphors to explain illness to themselves
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Acknowledgements

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:


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7.6 Conclusion

This extract has emphasised the importance of becoming familiar with the framework of learning outcomes within which your progress would be assessed.

It is imperative for you to be an active learner and take responsibility for what you want and need to get out of your studies. You willl achieve this through reflection on the process of your practice learning experiences and feedback from those involved in assessing your progress.


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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • begin to recognise how elite sport is funded in the UK.


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2.3 Community care, fear and the ‘high-risk’ service user

So far in this unit you have seen how the concept of risk has come to suggest danger. This section explores in greater depth how the changes that have led to this situation have impacted on mental health policies and practice. The next activity involves reading an article to help you consider risk in the context of mental health services.


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1.2.2 Boundaries of difference

One of the things that language does is define and give a name to differences between people – to delineate the boundaries that separate them. In the mental health field, the ‘mad’ are at one end of the social divide that separates the ‘normal’ from the ‘abnormal’. They are ‘the other’, a point made in the article by Perkins (above): ‘To be mad is to be defined as “other”’.

This is a recurring theme in the mental health field. In the following passage Abina Par
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3.21 Conclusion

This extract has shown that CAM practice raises a variety of ethical issues. Although ethical considerations have different dimensions when applied to CAM, this extract demonstrated that ethical issues – such as consent, competence, boundaries and effective communication – remain central to good practice. CAM practitioners, like all other responsible health care workers, must be taught and encouraged to recognise the ethical dimensions of their work. All practitioners must be accountable
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3.19 Key ethical issues for CAM practitioners: professional etiquette and whistleblowing

In the past, professional bodies cautioned their members against disparaging other members of the same profession in front of a user. In the UK many codes of ethics still discuss professional etiquette from the perspective of safeguarding the interests of the practitioner rather than the user. Sensitivity is required when treating a user who is dissatisfied with a previous practitioner, but this should not prevent a practitioner being critical of someone else's obviously unacceptable treatmen
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3.10 Difficulties in applying conventional bioethics to the CAM relationship

Much of the literature in bioethics views the doctor/patient relationship as the paradigmatic example of a health care encounter. Various assumptions are made about the roles of ‘good’ doctors and ‘good’ patients, gender, dominant cultural values, patient expectations and a shared (western) understanding of health and disease. These assumptions may not be shared by many CAM practitioners or, indeed, CAM patients. Can
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2.4 Ownership, control and ideas about the body

This section focuses on the extent to which a person becomes invisible when a practitioner rigidly adheres to a specific view of health and disease, and fails to accept that others (specifically the person they are treating) may have different ideas about illness or, indeed, about their body. The imposition of a fixed view of illness and disease can be extremely disempowering for people seeking help.

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1.5.8 Bibliographic software

If you are considering taking your studies further you might like to consider using bibliographic software. Bibliographic software can be used to sort references, annotate them, manage quotations or create reading lists.

There are several software packages on the market. Some are listed below.