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1.3.8 Summary of section

  • During the 1970s and 1980s, countries such as Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan benefited from their low-cost advantages in the new global division of labour. Now, however, the gap between rich and poor nations is wider and competition in the world economy greater, prompting campaigning groups to argue that contemporary low-wage economies do not have the options for economic development that their predecessors had.

  • In the face of market fragment
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6.6.2 The World Energy Council scenarios

What are the possibilities for radical changes in our energy systems when viewed from a world perspective? There have been numerous studies of the various future options for the world's energy systems. One of the most recent and most comprehensive was produced in 1998 by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and the World Energy Council (WEC), a version of which was published in 2000 as part of the United Nations' World Energy Assessment (United Nations Devel
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3.2 Fossil fuels

So what are the principle energy systems used by humanity at present, and how sustainable are they?

Until quite recently, human energy requirements were modest and our supplies came either from harnessing natural processes such as the growth of plants, which provided wood for heating and food to energise human or animal muscles, or from the power of water and wind, used to drive simple machinery.

But the nineteenth and twentieth centuries saw a massive increase in global energy us
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2.4.1 The emergence of ecology

To help you gain a better perspective on the general progress of scientific development, Table 4 provides a schematic potted history of some of the major ideas coming from science that have sought to guide our actions. It includes both social and natural sciences, though the former really only became distinct ‘science
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2.3 Social valuation: towards ecological citizenship

An important practical question is whether the standard tools of economics are adequate for describing and monitoring sustainable development. If we consider either the Brundtland ‘essential needs of the poor’ condition for sustainability, or the idea that we ought to try to secure a certain level of quality of life for future people equivalent to that of some people today, it would appear that economics will not be enough by itself. This is because each of these concepts demands more tha
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5 Human influence?

Evidence suggests that global temperature is beginning to rise. There are several factors that could cause this. Only one is affected by human activity.

Click on the link below to view a chart showing the rates of energy gain and loss by the Earth's surface and atmosphere

Energy gain and loss

Up to this point we have been prima
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1 Safety, health and environmental management – a risky business!

While views on management differ, Safety, Health and Environmental (SHE) management is merely a subset of management to which the same generalities apply. Indeed, at the end of this free course we will see indications of the integrating concepts being promoted by organisations. However, for the present we can translate the key actions of management into:

  • Plan – anticipate problems before they occur, and plan for prevention rather than remed
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4.6 Plants as medicines

Plants are already a major source of medicines. In 1990, sales in the USA of prescriptions where material of plant origin was the active ingredient totalled US$141500 million. For many centuries, people around the world have relied on herbal remedies of various kinds in the prevention and cure of ailments and diseases. There are over 211000 medicinal plants named by the World Health Organisation. Although there is some duplication where plants are known by different names in different places,
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Introduction

This unit is from our archive and it is an adapted extract from Human biology and health (SK220), which is no longer in presentation. If you wish to study formally at The Open University, you may wish to explore the courses we offer in this curriculum area.

To be able to understand the importance of the environment for our health, we n
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6.3 Sustainable development

The third approach to balancing human needs with environmental protection is to try to come to grips with what we mean by sustainability.

The most widely quoted definition of sustainable development is the one used by Gro Harlem Brundtland in the highly influential book Our Common Future (Brundtland, 1987):

'Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present withou
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4.5 Global climate change

I would like to turn now to the possible consequences of our use of energy for global climate change. Our pattern of energy use relies heavily on burning carbon-based fossil fuels, releasing carbon dioxide which spreads evenly around the globe and builds up slowly in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, which means that it has the potential both to warm the atmosphere and to change our global climate. It is not the only greenhouse gas but is the most important of those e
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3.1 Refrigeration and chlorofluorocarbons

A domestic refrigerator consists essentially of two elements. First, it has a well-insulated box that minimises the flow of heat energy from the warmer outside environment to the cold space inside. Second, it has a motor to circulate a cooling liquid or refrigerant which extracts heat from the cold space and carries it to the outside, where it is released, usually through a radiator at the back. Most refrigerators make use of the principle that when liquids vaporise – that is, change
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2.2 Climate change in a globalised world

As you will recall from Reading 1A, the people of Tuvalu are now arguing that larger and more affluent nations should take responsibility for the climatic changes threatening their country. As Paani Laupepa from the Tuvalu environment ministry put it: ‘We are on the front line … through no fault of our own. The industrialised countries caused the problem, but we are suffering the consequences’ (Lynas, 2003). Before we look more closely at this charge, and the scientific evidence that is
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Further reading

A critical view of WTO from the point of view of developing countries is Das, Bhagirath Lal (1998) WTO Agreements: Deficiencies, Imbalances and Required Changes, London, Zed Books.

A well documented report that goes over much of the same ground as this unit is Oxfam (2002) Rigged Rules and Double Standards: Trade, Globalization, and the Fight Against Poverty, London, Oxfam [online]. Available from Author(s): The Open University

3.1 Market access: expectations unfulfilled

A key objective of developing countries in trade liberalisation negotiations is access for their exports to the markets of developed countries. However, the rules have been played out by developed countries in ways that block the hoped-for rise in exports.


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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • identify the economic issues faced by developing countries in mutilateral trade negotiations;

  • describe these issues from a developing country perspective;

  • explain how the economic power of nations impinges upon the ability of states to negotiate settlements that are beneficial to them.


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Keeping Ahead in ICT
The legacy of apartheid in South Africa left people in urban townships and rural areas without access to basic communication technology that defines the digital age. Today, the latest mobile phone technology has changed everything. To reach the poorest communities, the government has had to adapt the technology and build new commercial partnerships. The six video tracks in this album introduce the size of the challenge, government policy and initiatives and the businesses that benefit. This mat
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

1.3 Activities

In Activity 3A, you will be exploring your 'personal ecology' – the relationship between the physical places wit
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • relate the temperature of a solid to the mean kinetic energy of its atoms

  • use models for thermally induced effects that involve linear, exponential and step changes

  • use exponentials, logarithms and graphical methods to interpret data from a thermally activated process in terms of Arrhenius's law

  • identify the changes of phase taking place in a variety of critical phenomena


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3.2.3 Managing group membership

The range of people that makes up the membership of a team, and the relationships they have with each other, have great influence on the team's effectiveness. The members should all be able to contribute their skills and expertise to the team's goals to make the best use of the resources. If you are ever in the position of being able to select your own team, you will need to identify your objectives and the methods for achieving your goals. From this will come the competences – the knowledg
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