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3.1.1 Agriculture

According to the UR Agreement on Agriculture, import quotas were to be abolished, but since no country was prepared to expose its farmers abruptly to the rigours of free trade, quotas were to be replaced by ‘equivalent’ tariffs, which were to be reduced over time. However, the calculation of equivalent tariffs is subject to wide margins of error, and since it was left to each country to determine its own tariffs, most were set at extraordinarily high levels – exceeding 200 or even 300 p
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Module team

The Open University course team

Course Team Chair of Production

Gillian Rose, Professor of Cultural Geography

Course Team Chair of Presentation

Chris Brook, Senior Lecturer in Geography

External Assessor

Peter Jackson, Professor of Human Geography, University of Sheffield

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1.6 Defining global markets

Global markets for manufactured goods, as opposed to, say, primary commodities such as oil and timber, arose largely in the second half of the twentieth century as trade between countries intensified. The lowering of transport costs and the relative fall in trade barriers enabled firms in one country to compete wit
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1.3 Activity 1

Activity 1

Before you read on, I would like you to dwell for just a moment on the significance of this shift from direct investment by Western firms to the establishment of subcontracting ties with overseas partners. Aside from outside
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • understand some of the key ways in which globalisation is shaping the world today;

  • give examples of how ideas of 'proximity' and 'distance' can be used to understand an increasingly demanding world;

  • illustrate the importance of recognising the liveliness of the natural world.


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Introduction

This unit interrogates the idea of a globalised world by showing how inequalities in access to material wealth and expectations of lifestyle, which have been created historically between the US and Mexico, produces border tensions as Mexicans seek entry to the US to do jobs that resident American citizens will not undertake for the wages offered. It is particularly relevant currently in the context of debates about free trade and movement of workforce to where they could find work, and that
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3.1 Exploring your personal ecology

One of the simplest techniques one can use when investigating a complex situation using a systems approach is to jump between organisational, spatial and temporal scales and explore the relationships between these scales. In this activity the aim is to develop a Author(s): The Open University

1.1 Aim

The activities and resources in this section engage you in an interdisciplinary investigation of your personal ecology by looking at a range of temporal, spatial, and organisational scales – from the personal to the global, from the short term to the long term. The aim is to gather evidence to he
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2.4 Oral and written communication

Humans use language to communicate. This is an obvious statement, but what is language and how do we use it? Language is basically a set of symbols with associated meanings. These symbols are delivered using a set of rules for stringing the symbols together to generate additional meaning. Humans use mostly sounds to represent these symbols, although as an Italian I can communicate common meanings by only using a range of hand gestures! We string together phonetic sounds to make words, and we
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1.1 Aim

This study unit introduces you to the proposition that our mental models change through learning, and
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5.1 Sudden changes

The third category of thermal effects identified in Section 2 are those associated with sudden changes. Here are some technically important examples where things change suddenly at a particular temperature:

  • Pure water boils at 100 °C (at atmospheric pressure).<
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4.4 Summary of Section 4

  • Thermal energy is a random thing, so any group of particles possessing it will have a distribution of kinetic energies.

  • The fraction of particles with energy greater than an amount E1 is proportional to exp(−E1/kT).

  • Thermally activated rates follow Arrhenius's law and are characterised by an activation energy.

  • Diffusion in solids and electrical conduction i
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4.3.3 Getting at the activation energy

The final trick I want to show you with Arrhenius's law is how to extract the constants r0 and Ea from experimental data. If the Arrhenius equation (Section 4.3.1) is ‘turned inside out’ by taking natural logarithms of both sides it becomes:


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2.2 Thermal effects in outline

Temperature is, of course, the measure of ‘thermal’ conditions. Nowadays it is measured by thermometers and expressed as a number on an agreed scale. Some features of thermometers and of their use are discussed in Thermometers and process control

The theoretical construct of temperature relates it to the kinetic energies of atoms. This gives clear insights into the way temperature affects the behaviour of materials. Energy is given to things to make them hot and taken
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4.3.2 Propagation

Once a small number of chains have been started, propagation involves successive addition of monomer units to achieve chain growth. At each step the free radical is regenerated as it reacts with the double bond. So in the case of styrene the propagation step is

The free radical can also add on in a
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4.3.1 Initiation

Initiation is the mechanism which starts the polymerization process. Vinyl monomers are quite easily polymerized by a variety of activating methods. Styrene, for example, can be converted to solid polymer simply by heating, and ultraviolet light can have exactly the same effect. Usually, however, an activating agent is used. This is an unstable chemical which produces active species that attack the monomer. A good example is benzoyl peroxide which splits up when heated:

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6 Summary

This unit has covered the background to systems engineering. It began by addressing the question ‘Why is systems engineering important?’ Two reasons were discussed:

  • projects go wrong, and the increasing incorporation of software means that they go wrong more often now than in the past

  • complication, complexity and risk are all increasing and need to be managed.

In the second section I examined the development of en
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5.2 The aims and principles of system engineering

The aims of systems engineering can be divided into those to do with its outputs and those associated with the process itself. As far as its outputs are concerned, systems engineering aims to ensure that:

  • the requirements of all the stakeholders are taken into account in engineering the system

  • the system, as engineered and realised, meets the requirements of stakeholders

  • the system, while meeting the req
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Stage 4: Conceptual model

The conceptual (or activity) model contains all the activities that the relevant system would have to perform. The model is usually drawn as a block diagram.


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2.4.1 Multimode distortion

With multimode fibre, the main cause of pulses spreading is the multiple paths that signals can traverse as they travel along the fibre. This phenomenon of multimode distortion is illustrated in Figure 5.


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