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1.2.4 Personal distress

Another way of defining psychological ‘abnormality’ is to ask whether certain behaviours or styles of functioning cause distress to the individual concerned. Think about your response to what you consider to be ‘normal’ alcohol consumption. Perhaps you specified a maximum number of units per day or week? If so, why did you do this? Is it because of the health problems associated with excessive drinking, or because of its association with antisocial behaviour? Some of you may believe t
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Module team

Open University staff

Dr Dorothy Miell, Senior Lecturer in Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences (Course Team Chair)

Dr Paul Anand, Lecturer in Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences

Peter Barnes, Lecturer in Centre for Childhood, Development and Learning, Faculty of Education and Language Studies

Pam Berry, Key Compositor

Dr Nicola Brace, Lecturer in Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences

Dr Nick Braisby, Lectur
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3 Using the Menu

Activity 2

0 hours 20 minutes

This activity follows the previous one by opening with a window showing the Trends 14 data file. You are encouraged to explore the menus by using the SPSS software. E
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Acknowledgements

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Author

Sue Platt has been a school governor for 21 years, at both primary and secondary p
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References

Creese M. & Earley P., (1999) Improving Schools and Governing Bodies, Routledge, London.
DfES (2003), National Training Programme for New Governors, Module 2.
Gann N., (1998) Improving School Governance – How Better Governors Make Better Schools, Falmer Press, London.
Martin J. & Holt A., (2002) Joined-up Gove
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Introduction

Target setting for pupil attainment is seen as being a means of raising standards in schools through placing pupil achievement at the core of school planning. This unit will help governors of secondary schools ensure that realistic yet challenging targets are set and provide guidance on assessing the data that needs to be evaluated to come to such decisions.


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1 The governors' role

The governing body has … general responsibility for the conduct of the school with a view to promoting high standards of educational achievement…

Guide to the Law for School Governors, 2004, Governornet

In 2001, the Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED) reported on the role of governing bodies in schools that had been made the subject of Special Measures following an inspection. Am
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2.2 Chair of Governors

The role of the Chair of Governors is particularly important, as it is the Chair who will provide leadership for the governing body. It can be a time-consuming job so, to prevent it from becoming too onerous, the Chair should encourage other members to become more involved.

An effective Chair can provide invaluable support for the school. A clear understanding of the role of the governing body, a positive and pro-active approach to the management of its responsibilities, and a good work
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5.6.6 Website and browser

Chisholm, W., Vanderheiden, G. and Jacobs, I. (eds) (1999) Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0

Jacobs, I., Gunderson, J. and Hansen, E. (eds) (2002) User Agent Accessibility Guidelines 1.0

TechDis, e-Learning, http://www.techdis.ac.uk/index.php?p=9_4 (no longer accessible)


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5.6.5 Software

IBM, ‘Software accessibility’ guidelines and checklist,

IBM Human Ability and Accessibility Center

Trace Research and Development Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison,‘Application software design guidelines’


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5.4.4 Using automated checking tools

Another approach to testing website accessibility is the use of automated tools. These tools are useful for obtaining a quick overview of a site's accessibility and for checking technical accessibility. Examples of automated accessibility checking tools include:

  • WebXACT: A free online service that allows people to test single web pages for quality, accessibility, and privacy issues. It is provided by Watchfire, who also offer Bobby, a desktop applicat
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5.4.1 Aim of accessibility evaluation

The aim of an accessibility evaluation is to assess the extent of the accessibility of the teaching resource: not to evaluate whether it is or is not accessible. In other words, the question to ask is ‘To what extent is this product accessible to people with a range of disabilities?’ rather than ‘Is this product accessible?’ An accessibility evaluation should assess both technical accessibility and usable accessibility.


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5.1 Design decisions

In this activity, we examine in more detail the design decisions that affect accessibility for different groups of disabled students. The activity will help you to create accessible resources, or can be used as a basis to inform your discussions with those who create such resources on your behalf.

We introduce the process of including accessibility considerations in the specification of online learning resources, including 10 principles for accessibility that can be included in a specif
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4.8 Activity task

1. Read through the four scenarios below and choose one to answer the associated questions.

Work out your answers to the questions posed.

You will find your list of challenging activities and solutions useful here. In a real situati
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4.6.2 Record your decisions

If you are subject to disability discrimination legislation, it is important to record your reasoning in case a student decides to make a legal challenge. Record who was responsible for taking the decision and the pedagogic and practical grounds that led to their decision.

You also have to decide whether a student can still pass the course even if they can't achieve all the learning objectives.

It is important to stand back for a moment and compare this situation with that of a no
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4.5.4 Don't – compromise budgets

If you have explored all possible funding sources and still cannot afford an expensive adjustment, you are not expected to put the rest of the course and provision for other students at risk. Again, in countries with disability discrimination legislation, you must be prepared to defend your position if a student brings a legal case against you.

If you decide that the nature of the course means that it is highly unlikely that a student with a particular disability will ever apply, it may
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4.5.3 Don't – compromise requirements of external bodies

If your course is provided for an external body, you should discuss with them any adjustments that may conflict with their requirements.


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4.1 Adjustments for all

This activity on ‘Accessibility, pedagogy and reasonable adjustments’ discusses considering the needs of disabled students in terms of the concept of reasonable adjustments and the potential impact of a disability on achieving learning objectives. The activity asks you to consider some specific course scenarios and your responses to them. The subsequent activity, ‘Specifying, designing and evaluating accessibility’, goes on to look at design decisions in the development of accessible
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