Topic 7: Public Goods and Externalities Part 3 | Econ2450A: Public Economics
Raj Chetty Fall 2012
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6.2 Refining the specification

The ideas for the boiler cut-out switch can now be based on some real knowledge about temperature effects. You are now ready to tackle the next exercise.

Exercise 7

List four temperature-dependent changes in mate
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2.3.2 The project (single) team

The project, or single, team consists of a group of people who come together as a distinct organisational unit in order to work on a project or projects. The team is often led by a project manager, though self-managing and self-organising arrangements are also found. Quite often, a team that has been successful on one project will stay together to work on subsequent projects. This is particularly common where an organisation engages repeatedly in projects of a broadly similar nature – for e
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References

IEC 60793-2-10 (1992) International Standard 60793-2-10 Optical Fibres – Part 2-10: Product Specifications – Sectional specification for category A1 multimode fibres, International Electrotechnical Commission.
IEC 60793-2-50 (1992) International Standard 60793-2-10 Optical Fibres – Part 2-;50: Product Specifications – Sectional specification for category B single mode fibres, International Electr
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Appendix 2 Acronyms

APCangle-polished convex (connector)
ASEamplified spontaneous emission
ASKamplitude shift keying
cwcontinuous wave
DSFdispersion-shifted fibre
DWDMdense wavelength division multiplexing
EDFAerbium-doped fibr
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4.6 Conclusion to Section 4

This brief account has introduced a few of the most rapidly developing areas of optical-fibre communications as of January 2004. By the time you are reading it things will certainly have moved on, and if you want to find the current state of the art you should read journals such as IEEE Communications Magazine or trade magazines such as Lightwave. It is also possible to find out more on the world wide web.

I hope you will agree that this is a fascinating field, and that yo
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4.5 Fibre in LANs

Fibre has been slower to be exploited in LANs than in the core transmission network, for similar reasons to the delay in the use of fibre in the access network, but as the data rate demanded of LANs has increased, the case for using fibre has strengthened.

Although Ethernet specifications (IEEE 802.3 series) have contained standards for the use of fibre backbones for some time, it was with the development of Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10 GbE) standards that fibre became t
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4.4.2 Passive optical networks and Ethernet in the first mile

If FTTH uses a dedicated fibre link between each house and the telephone exchange then each house carries the cost of two sets of terminal equipment: one in the house and one in the exchange.

A significant saving can be made with the passive optical network (PON) configuration (Author(s): The Open University

4.3 Optical networking

DWDM improves the utilisation of optical fibre for point-to-point links, but a further step in exploiting the potential of optical fibre comes from optical networking in which routeing or switching is done optically.

Optical networking is in its infancy, but the concept of the optical layer based upon wavelength channels is emerging. The optical layer effectively sits below the SDH layer in the network, and provides wavelength channels from one location to another.

An analogy can
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • discuss what ethics is and what constitutes an ethical issue

  • identify and discuss ethical issues that arise in the media, in routine conversations and, in particular, in personal everyday professional practice

  • discuss the role of emotions in ethical deliberations

  • discuss how negotiation might resolve apparent ethical differences

  • identify and discuss the ethical issues p
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7.4 The impact of technology on society

Engineering is apparently driven by the needs of society. The technology that results, in turn, drives other changes in our everyday lives. One of the basic needs identified in Section 2 was for shelter. There are many fine examples of long-surviving structures such as pyramids, aqueducts, bridges, walls, functional buildings, and so on. Remarkably these constructions were completed without the depth of analysis and understanding that is available today (though we don't necessarily know much
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6 A problem with sensors

The problem we will look at in this section concerns the analysis of the design of a component used in cars that are fitted with airbags. The airbag has to be inflated rapidly when an electronic circuit in the system decides that a serious collision is taking place. The crucial component in the electronics is the accelerometer, which therefore has to be extremely reliable. Motor manufacturers have turned to a technology called MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) for these accelerometers, b
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5.2 Material comparisons

I want to depart from the specific example of the bicycle to make some more general points.

In most simple structural analysis the self-weight of the structure is ignored, as it is considered to be small in comparison with the loads carried. However, as an illustration of engineering practice in the search for efficient structures to employ in product design, it is worth examining how the strength and weight of particular materials compare.

These comparisons are illustrated throug
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5.7.1 Mixed oxidant gases system

This is a relatively new system of disinfection. It involves electrolysis of high-purity NaCl brine to produce a mixture of chlorine dioxide, ozone and hypochlorite. This mixture is separated within the electrochemical cell by a membrane, or by exploiting density difference, and is then metered into the water requiring disinfection. The mixed oxidant gases are generated on demand and this is a great safety advantage, compared with having storage tanks of chlorine on site. The source for the d
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2.1 Introduction

If Goethe is regarded as the greatest German poet of his time, Franz Schubert (see Figure 1) is generally accepted as the greatest songwriter of the period. But their careers and experience could not have been more different. Unlike Goethe, who lived into his 80s, Schubert died at the age of 31. Goethe's writing career extended from the 1770s, when Enlightenment writing was at its height, to his death in 1832, by which time Romanticism was in full flood. Schubert's important work was concentr
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Investigating Entrepreneurial Opportunities
What does it make to be an entrepreneur? Is it hardcoded into certain individuals? Or is it just a matter of changing the way we view opportunities? In this series of audios Emeritus Professor, Colin Gray, of Enterprise Development at The Open University is joined by entrepreneur and Open University graduate, Julian Brouwer, to discuss the practical issues that arise when you try to bring a technological innovation to market. This material forms part of the course B322 Investigating entrepreneu
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

1.6 Imperialism

Related to the idea of transferring regulation across borders, is the influence of colonial tradition and of trade relations. The European colonisers, notably the UK and France, transferred their accounting rules to their colonies, so that Singapore, for example, had the same rules as Cyprus and Nigeria (Walton, 1986), while Cameroon shared rules with Lebanon, Vietnam and Guadeloupe, amongst others.

Modern academic notions of ‘imperialism’ include the idea of economic domination, an
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Activity 4: What do you see?

Allow 60 minutes for this activity.

Now that you have understood the nature of national culture and how it is manifested in your context, the following activities will help you to appreciate why it matters. Culture influences your way of thinking. Indeed Hofstede argues that it is a ‘given’ for organisations and therefore also influences the way in which organisations are managed.

This activity will help you to understand why culture matters by helping you to see how di
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2.1 Definitions of marketing

Before we focus on ‘social marketing’ we should clarify the nature of ‘marketing’ as both an academic discipline and a management practice.

Kotler and Armstrong (2008, p. 5) define marketing as follows:

Marketing is human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchange processes.

Two key issues are highlighted by this definition:

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4 Identifying deliverables

The project brief will identify the goals of the project and may express some of these as key objectives. At an early stage of planning you will need to identify all of the project objectives and the deliverables that are implied or required from each objective.

Each objective will identify a clear outcome. The outcome is the deliverable. In some cases, the outcome will be some sort of change achieved and in other cases it will be the production of something new. In either case, the pro
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