7.1 Health problems associated with using chemicals

As described in Section 6.2, hazard is defined under COSHH as the inherently dangerous properties of a chemical or biological organism, and risk is defined as the likelihood of a chemical causing harm to people or to the environment.

There are several, more specific, known health problems associated with using chemicals.
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.4 Human-induced eutrophication

While eutrophication does occur independently of human activity, increasingly it is caused, or amplified, by human inputs. Human activities are causing pollution of water bodies and soils to occur to an unprecedented degree, resulting in an array of symptomatic changes in water quality and in species and communities of associated organisms. In 1848 W. Gardiner produced a flora of Forfarshire, in which he described the plants growing in Balgavies Loch. He talked of 'potamogetons [pondweeds] fl
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

First-order differential equations

This unit introduces the topic of differential equations. The subject is developed without assuming that you have come across it before, but it is taken for granted that you have a basic grounding in calculus. In particular, you will need to have a good grasp of the basic rules for differentiation and integration.

This study unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course MST209 Mathematical methods and models, which is no longer taught by the University. If you want t
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2013 The Open University

2.2.1 Finance

Every time you use a debit or credit card the shop till uses a terminal connected to other computers via a network. Your identification details are automatically transferred from your card to your bank or credit card company for verification, and your balance adjusted accordingly. This also applies if you are shopping online, or over the phone (when booking a cinema ticket, for example). ATMs (also known as cashpoints) allow you to check your bank balance or withdraw cash from wherever you ar
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Introduction

This free course, An introduction to law in contemporary Scotland, will introduce you to the law making process in Scotland. The Scottish legal system and many aspects of the law in Scotland are different from those in England and Wales. The law of Scotland has a history and roots, which are distinct from that of England and Wales. Despite forming a union with England and Wales at various points throughout that history, Scotland has retained a separate legal system.

Like the law
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand the legal framework of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 and Regulations associated with it

  • understand the employers’, employees’ and visitors’ duties

  • evaluate hazards and risks in order to carry out a risk assessment

  • understand the legal requirement to report any accident or dangerous occurrence

  • develop risk assessments for scientific laborat
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.2 'Biological control'

We are also guilty of importing exotic species, some of which, like the rhododendron (imported from Asia to Europe), have run riot in the absence of natural predators or primary consumers, and so have tended to out-compete native plants. Sometimes introductions have been accidental; rats and many disease-causing organisms have spread around the world via relatively modern transportation such as sailing ships. However, deliberate introductions, such as the rhododendron, have been made with wor
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2013 The Open University

1.2.3 Basic principles

Whatever resource you choose to use to find information on the internet, many of the same principles apply. Each source that you use will probably look quite different from the one you tried before, but you'll notice that there are always features that are similar – a box to type your search terms in, for instance, or a clickable help button. Different resources refer to the same functions using different terminology, but the principles behind them are exactly the same. The trick is to chec
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3.3 Green governance needs citizens

The term ‘good governance’ implies that ‘ordinary people’ will be involved in deciding what to do, trying to make it happen, and deciding whether it has happened (debate, implementation, monitoring). But what, in practical terms, might citizen involvement in the governance of an issue such as climate change mean? Citizen involvement in decisions and actions can mean anything from filling in a questionnaire to joining a demonstration to sitting on a committee. One helpful approach is A
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2013 The Open University

Introduction

This unit is designed to introduce you to the concepts of health and safety within a science laboratory or in the field. There are a number of legal requirements that must be adhered to before carrying out work in a laboratory. One of these is the necessity to carry out risk assessments on the chemical and biological agents that are to be used as part of your practical work activities. As part of this process you may be required to think about minimising exposure of yourself and colleagues to
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2013 The Open University

2.1.1 Ron revisited

In Case Report 1 you met Ron. Ron is 59 years old, has a BMI of 31 and a central obesity ratio of 0.96, indicating that he is moderately obese, with the fat concentrated in his abdomen, rather than his hips. Clearly a number of factors, some environmental, others relating to Ron's age and all interacting with Ron's genetic constitution, may help to provide an explanation. Let's look at some of these factors in a little more detail. It is clear that Ron enjoys a comfortable lifestyle with litt
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.3 Iron storage

In humans, iron is stored mainly in the bone marrow, spleen and liver. About 10 per cent of all the iron in the body is in storage. Two proteins are involved in iron storage; these are called ferritin and haemosiderin (they also occur in other organisms). We shall only study the better characterised (and simpler!) ferritin.

Each ferritin molecule can store iron up to about 20 per cent of its total mass. This is a very high percentage, considering that less than 0.2 per cen
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Indigenous Peoples' Legal Water Forum 2009 Session 4
A forum to explore the rights of Indigenous peoples to be involved in the governance of freshwater. Tom Bennion, barrister sole, editor of Maori Law Review, and specialist in environmental law and Treaty of Waitangi claims, "Maori rights to water: an historical overview".
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

2.5.1 Quantum mechanics and chance

The real quantum revolution dates from the formulation of quantum mechanics by Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976) and others in 1925, and its physical interpretation by Max Born (1882-1970) in 1926. However, before attempting even the most basic sketch of quantum mechanics let's take a small diversion into the realm of philosophy.

The basic working philosophy of most scientists, including those who say they have no philosophy, is a kind of realism. (Philosophers recognise many
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Burly Hyperbole Luchador
This computer-generated video uses humor to help teach about hyperboles. As two luchadors prepare to fight, one quickly discovers that his opponent, Burly Hyperbole, likes to talk trash and in doing so exaggerates, a lot.  Can you spot all of the hyperboles? The
trash-talking may not be appropriate for younger students unless a discussion is also included on bullying.  (03:28)

Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

4.2 Carbon reduction targets

Let's now look at carbon footprint reduction targets in a bit more detail.

The first international agreement to set carbon reduction targets was the 1997 United Nations Kyoto Protocol, which requires developed countries to reduce their human-generated greenhouse gas emissions by an average of just over 5% on 1990 levels by 2008 to 2012. By the time the treaty came into force in 2005, only the USA and Australia had refused to sign. (A new Australian government finally signe
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Volume | Measurement | Pre-Algebra | Khan Academy
Volume is a measurement in the 3rd dimension. This means that it not only has width and height, but it has depth as well. Let's watch this video in which we get a great explanation of how we measure volume. (07:50)

Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

4.1 Introduction

The second topic in this course concerns neural ageing – remember the term ‘neural ageing’ is used to mean ageing as it impacts u
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Water supply and treatment in the UK
Have you thought about the journey water makes to get to your taps? What processes has it undergone to make it safe to drink? The tracks in this album examine issues of water supply and treatment in the UK, where each of us uses approximately 150 litres a day! We hear from different parties involved in water management including the bodies representing the consumer, the environment, and the suppliers. The scope of the discussion ranges from wastage and emergency treatment to recycling and efflue
Author(s): The iTunes U team

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

2.4.3 Polarization mode distortion

Because light is an electromagnetic wave, it has a ‘state of polarization’, which, for light in single-mode fibre, is at right angles to the path of the fibre. If you've not encountered electromagnetic waves before, all you need to appreciate is that as light travels down the fibre the electromagnetic field has an orientation across the fibre (Author(s): The Open University