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8 24!

This section aims to show you how daily routine changes from one culture to another.

Activity 31 Routine in the United Kingdom

You should allow 10 minutes

Make some notes on the
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4.12 The implications of gender differences in communication

Activity 20

0 hours 20 minutes

If it were true that men and women tend to communicate in very different ways, what might be the implications for health and social
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4.9 The revival of gender essentialism

After falling out of fashion in the wake of feminist influence in the 1970s and 1980s, there are signs that the notion of ‘essential’ gender differences is undergoing a revival. At an academic level, this has been stimulated by work within genetics, evolutionary psychology and neurology (see Baron-Cohen, 2003). At a more popular level, self-help manuals which apparently ‘explain’ the differences between men's and women's behaviours, and offer advice on coping with them, have become hu
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4.4 Where does gender come from?

Activity 15

0 hours 20 minutes

3 Silences and concealment

Anthropologists and psychoanalysts use the term ‘taboo’ to describe forbidden activities, feelings or relationships. All societies seem to have particular rules and rituals to deal with bodily functions, sexuality and death, sometimes expressed in terms of hygiene or religion, and these keep them separated off from everyday life. When social rules function well they are invisible. We only notice them when we have committed a faux pas and caused embarrassment.

Marie very quick
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1.2.2 Problems with implementation

Writing a report is one thing – getting it implemented as policy is another. In the full version of An Introduction to the Beveridge Report, Jacobs (1992a) makes clear that there were a number of departures from the blueprint when the Labour government came to steering the legislation through parliament. One was a move to greater generosity. The report had recommended that the new pensions should be phased in over a period of 20 years to allow people to build up their contributions.
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1.2.1 The Beveridge report

The architect of much of this reform in the field of social welfare was William Beveridge. His report entitled ‘Social Insurance and Allied Services’ was compiled as the war was at its height (Beveridge, 1942). In it Beveridge set out a plan to put an end to what he called the ‘five giants’ – Want (today we would call it poverty), Disease, Ignorance, Squalor and Idleness (unemployment). The centrepiece was a state-run system of compulsory insurance. Every worker, by contribut
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2: Moral dilemmas

It is clear from the account of Jim and Marianne's lives that they need some help. But do they deserve help? Some of our course testers had very strong reactions to the inclusion of drug users in a course about health and social care. Here is one typical response:

I am not sure that Jim and Marianne and people like them deserve this sort of attention. Their problems were self-inflicted. It must have cost someone (w
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A psychological explanation for near-death experiences

Some people put forward a psychological explanation of the near-death experience which goes something like this: the personality (or ego) is attempting to deny its imminent dissolution and so evokes such mechanisms as depersonalisation (as in ‘leaving the body’) or ego defence (hearing voices, etc.). This explanation is like the medical one in assuming that consciousness perishes with brain stem death. In fact Sabom wishes to challenge that assumption and to suggest that consciousness may
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1.3.7 Emotional feelings

In Sabom’s study all who reported a near-death experience were asked to describe their emotions during the experience. The predominant picture was one of calm, peace and tranquillity, in marked contrast to the physical pain and suffering felt before or after the event. Some spoke of sadness at seeing the efforts and distress of others trying to bring them back to life, and one woman spoke of being very happy until she remembered she was leaving her children behind. A few referred to a sense
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1.3.3 Ineffability

Most people who speak of their near-death experience say they have great difficulty putting it into words because, as one person put it, ‘There is no feeling you experience in normal life that is anything like this’.


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1.3.2 Recurrent themes

When the accounts of people who have described a near-death experience are looked at side by side it is possible to identify some common features. This isn’t to say that all of these features are present in every account, but that amidst variations there are certainly recurrent themes. The following list is compiled from a variety of studies, including the important study undertaken by Sabom (1982), himself initially sceptical.


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1.2.7 Margaret

Margaret was in her thirties when she learnt she had breast cancer. Some three years later, after the removal of the affected breast, she was leading a very busy life working full-time at the Open University, studying part-time for an OU degree and running a family. Fitness activities such as jogging and various sports had become very important in her life. She was also very involved in cancer research fundraising activities. She described the impact of her brush with death in this way:


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Acknowledgements

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3.2 Analysing practice

Activity 5

1 hour 30 minutes

6 Limitations of LETS

Figure 3
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