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1.4 Stellar masses and stellar evolution

Measured masses range from about 0.08M to about 50M, a large range, with the Sun again showing up as an average sort of star. At the upper end we have some true monsters, but even at the lower end we have bodies that are still far more massive than the planets.

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1.1.2 Key resources

When you need to find information in education, how confident are you that you know the best places to search (e.g. search engines, subject gateways, online databases etc.) to find the information you need?

  • 5 - Very confident

  • 4 - Confident

  • 3 - Fairly confident

  • 2 - Not very confident

  • 1 - Not confident at all

How familiar are you with journal articles as a source of info
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Learning to change
This free course, Learning to change, is for people who are thinking about making changes in their lives, such as returning to study or taking a different direction at work. It will help you build on what you already know; consider the choices open to you; use your skills and qualities to achieve change; and make plans for the future. First published on Mon, 08 Apr 2013 as Author(s): Creator not set

3.6 Health education

The poor were not the only targets of health education. Campaigns against tuberculosis and venereal disease were aimed at all classes. Advice was dispensed through exhibitions, lectures, classes, posters, radio talks and films. Tuberculosis, the public was told, was best combated by a generally healthy lifestyle – fresh air, exercise and hygiene. The 1939 film Stand Up and Breathe, made by the National Association for the Prevention of Tuberculosis (NAPT), promoted all sorts of outdo
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3.5 The health of mothers and children

The health of mothers and infants was one target for action. France was among the first to introduce infant welfare schemes, as low birth rates, high infant mortality and defeat in the Franco-Prussian War led politicians to fear for the future strength of the nation. Diarrhoea among bottle-fed babies was singled out as a preventable cause of high infant mortality. From the 1890s, charities and local authorities set up infant welfare clinics called gouttes de lait, which encouraged moth
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3.3 Hygiene

Good hygiene – a clean home and a clean body – would also appear to have been available to all classes, but again, it was easier for the wealthier classes to achieve these goals. Newer houses, with bathrooms and laundries, modern plumbing and sanitary facilities, and servants to do the hard work, ensured that the middle and upper classes could enjoy regular baths (hot and cold), clean clothes and clean homes.

Exercise and good personal hygiene were not just a means of protecting hea
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3.2 Health and wealth

While all classes regarded good health as desirable, access to various means of preserving or promoting it varied according to economic circumstances. For the upper and middle classes, with substantial amounts of disposable income, a wide range of options were available. They could access information about how to protect their health through books and articles in magazines. Many of these books were written (or at least claimed to be written) by doctors and other health-care professionals. An
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2 Patterns of disease

Before looking at how people dealt with ill health, you need to know what sort of medical conditions were prevalent. Between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, all over Europe, the prevailing pattern of mortality changed. Infectious diseases, which had killed huge numbers of people, were gradually brought under control. As life expectancy increased, degenerative diseases, associated with old age, began to cause more deaths. However, although people were living longer, they actually spent
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1 Access to healthcare, 1880–1930

The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries have often been described as a period of progress, when the poorer classes gained access to a whole range of medical services previously reserved for the wealthy. In the past, this opening up of care was largely attributed to the state. Across Europe, central and local governments created health insurance schemes and new welfare services to provide the poor with access to care, from general practitioners (GPs) to outpatient and hospital care,
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit, you should be able to do the following:

  • describe the wide range of methods of promoting health, preventing disease and providing care that were available to patients of different social groups and classes;

  • be aware of the inequalities of services – in terms of both quality of care and access to different services – open to different social groups and classes;

  • assess the significance of the roles of central and local gov
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Introduction

Access to healthcare is important to all of us. Did the arrival of state medicine in the twentieth century mean that everyone had access to good medical services? If you fell sick in 1930 where could you get treatment – from a GP, a hospital, a nurse? This unit shows that in the early twentieth century, access to care was unequally divided. The rich could afford care; working men, women and children were helped by the state; others had to rely on their own resources.

This study unit i
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References

Barker-Benfield, G.J. (1992) The Culture of Sensibility: Sex and Society in Eighteenth-Century Britain, Chicago and London, University of Chicago Press.
Jackson, S.W. (1970) ‘Force and kindred notions in eighteenth-century neurophysiology and medical psychology’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol. 44, pp. 397–410, 539–54.
Lawrence, C. (1979) ‘The
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3 Conclusion

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a series of innovative models of the body was produced, from the mechanical to the mathematical to the sensible. As groundbreaking anatomical investigation and physiological experimentation were carried out, the map of the body changed, and different parts (vessels, glands, nerves) acquired visibility and became the focus of much research. New atlases and images of the body were produced to help students grasp the object of their study. We cannot d
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2.2 The popularisation of ideas

One of the media that helped to popularise the importance of nerves and the concept of sensibility was to be found outside medical encounters, in a new and extremely successful literary genre, the ‘novel of sentiment’. Writers such as Samuel Richardson, Laurence Sterne and Henry Mackenzie, who were familiar with the current medico-physiological debate, openly drew on these notions and made their characters' sensibility and response to external events the driving force of their writing (Ba
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1.2 The poor as patients

Patients' accounts of hospital life in the early modern period are notoriously thin on the ground, so historians have turned to other sources. These include hospital registers, which became more detailed and accurate in the eighteenth century, and the notebooks of medical students, who were increasingly attracted to hospitals for on-the-job training. Both types of document have been extensively used to throw light on the daily routine of patients and the treatment they received. Here I draw e
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1.1 Introduction

The ‘welfare state’ and its future are frequently a topic of passionate debate. Its philosophy, best embodied in the expression ‘from the cradle to the grave’, is based on the principle that one of the duties of the state is to care for the well-being of its citizens at each stage of their lives. Health is now recognised, at least in most European countries, as a universal right and many agree that its costs should be met by society as a whole and not just by those who are sick. Furth
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • assess the specific problems concerning the health of a community;

  • describe how medical knowledge was a resource for, and was shaped by, broader cultural perceptions of the body.


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Introduction

This unit presents information about how Scottish healthcare institutions were influenced by the underlying social, economic, political and cultural contexts.

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a series of innovative models of the body was produced, from the mechanical to the mathematical to the sensible. As groundbreaking anatomical investigation and physiological experimentation were carried out, the map of the body changed, and different parts (vessels, glands, nerves) acqu
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Acknowledgements

This course was written by Dr Emma Barker.

This free course is an adapted extract from the course A207 From Enlightenment to Romanticism c. 1780–1830, which is currently out of presentation

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary (not subject to Creative Commons licence) and used under licence. No alteration or manipulation of images is permitted and they must be used in context and for non commercial purposes.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sourc
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