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7.2 Other ways of structuring thought

Distinguishing between generals and particulars can help you in reading, note taking and writing for your course. But, looking at things in a hierarchical general-particular way is only one approach to giving structure to ideas and information.

Activity 16

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7.1 Translating your plan

You have now reached the stage when it is time to translate your plan, whatever its form, into the assignment itself. It is likely that this will be a first attempt at the exercise – a first draft. You may be one of the lucky few who only needs to write one draft. Or, if you have taken some time over your planning, one draft before the final version may be enough. But if you are finding it difficult to reconcile opposing points of view or to fit in a great deal of information, you may need
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5.4 Identifying sources

So what material do you have available to you?

  • Your materials are likely to be your first sources of information.

  • Any guidance notes you may have been given will sometimes tell you exactly which sections you need to look at. But don't forget that your course materials encompass more than just these texts.

  • Make use of any handouts you've been given.

  • Your own notes of what you have been reading or watching; fr
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5.3 Researching

‘Research’ may sound rather a grand word for what you feel you do at this point of preparation for your assignment. Don't worry: essentially all it involves is finding out more about the topic in hand.


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Keep on learning

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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • identify that social scientists can collect evidence to support their claims and theories in different ways

  • give examples of quantitative and qualitative evidence

  • recognise a variety of methods for obtaining evidence

  • understand the ways in which evidence can be presented; how to read it actively and with purpose.


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7.1 Processing meanings

Reading and thinking requires you to begin to process the material you read in preparation for re-presenting it in assessments. Initially, processing happens in your head. Selecting what to identify and extract will start the process off. Summarizing the arguments continues this process and, crucially, gets you started on reproducing ideas in your own words. The next stage is to develop your notes further by thinking more consciously about the material you have read and the points you
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6 Extracting a summary

In developing short notes you are already beginning to extract key ideas from the text. To assist you further in this you might also find it helpful to bring the points you have highlighted and/or made short notes about together. This involves the use of link sentences and words, perhaps even the addition of short quotes taken from the text directly, and examples or additional words of explanation. In this way your notes build up into a summary which you can use more easily.

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5 Keeping it short: jottings, abbreviations and symbols

Once you have identified the key ideas you are in a position to take some brief notes or jottings. Indeed, you will find that highlighting on its own is a rather passive process and as a result you may not remember the ideas that you identified. Rather than returning to the highlighted text every time you want to revisit or draw upon these ideas, only to find that what you have marked does not make sense to you anymore, it is useful to develop a form of short note taking. So, getting k
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Forensic psychology
In this free course, Forensic psychology, you will discover how psychology can help obtain evidence from eyewitnesses in police investigations and prevent miscarriages of justice. First published on Tue, 24 Apr 2018 as Forensic psychology. To find o
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Acknowledgements

This free course is an adapted extract from the course DSE212 Exploring psychology, which is currently out of presentation.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommerc
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2.3.1 Behaviour

First, for many decades, ‘behaviour’ has provided the most dominant kind of evidence – what people and animals can be seen to do. Behaviour can cover a very wide range of activities. Think about examples such as a rat finding its way through a maze to a pellet of food, a participant in a memory experiment writing down words five minutes after having done a memorising task, a small group of children who are observed whilst they, jointly, use a computer to solve a problem, a teenager admi
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2.3 A brief look at different kinds of data

For a long time there has been a very important argument about what are the ‘legitimate data’ of psychology – what can and should be used as evidence. We have already seen that, from the very beginnings of psychology as a formal discipline, psychologists have used experimental methods, observations and introspection. In one form or another these methods continue to be central to psychology. The experimental method, adapted from traditional science, has most consistently been considered
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1.2 Psychology has wide appeal

Some people will be doing this psychology course to consolidate earlier study and experience and to build a career. Others will be quite new to psychology as a formal research-based discipline. Some will have been stimulated to study a course in psychology by the well-publicised examples of research findings or psychologists at work that are presented in the media. Some will be coming to this course because of experiences in their own personal lives. This may be because they have been touched
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • describe the diversity of psychology as a discipline

  • list some of the ways psychologists focus on different aspects of human behaviour

  • identify different methods psychologists use to explore human behaviour

  • illustrate the importance of ethical considerations.


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3 Book awards

Members of the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals will be familiar with the Carnegie medal, which is awarded for an outstanding children's book each year.

The BookTrust website lists a variety of different awards for children's books and, although the majority are judged by publishers and critics, some involve children in the selection process. You
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • clarify ideas on literacy criticism

  • explore with pupils what makes a good book

  • produce a range of writing frames to encourage pupils to write book reviews

  • encourage pupils to follow some of the award schemes for children's books and perhaps start a new one.


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English in the world today
How did English become the global force it is today? This free course, English in the world today, explores the status of the language and its worldwide diversity. It looks at how social and political factors influence people's attitudes towards it, and at the relationship between one's linguistic heritage and sense of identity. First published on Wed, 09 Mar 2016
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