6.3.1 Prototyping

The first prototypes may be made of any convenient material, such as clay, plaster-of-Paris or wood. Plastic models can also be made by fabrication or vacuum forming of thin sheet. Their primary function is to ensure that the product has ‘customer appeal’ when considered in aesthetic or ergonomic terms. This is particularly important for products which are to be consumer durables. It may be the first time in the design process that the concept sketches and initial engineering drawings are
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3.3.3 Higher aromatics

Benzene rings can be fused in various ways to create component parts for some of the complex aromatic repeat units shown in Table 5. One of the most important is bisphenol A, made by fusing two phenol rings with acetone:

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4.5 Torture

The question of torture is also raised in the play. Herrenvolk claims that he does not do the torture; it is some Uzbekistan outfit that does it. He actually gives them a justification by saying, in a rather glib way, that it is a lot easier to open a human being than an encrypted laptop. Of course, the question is, is it ever ‘right’ to exploit this as a means of finding things out? I suspect most of us would say ‘no’.


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8.3.1 Fluorine-based etching of silicon

Given the noxious chemistry needed to etch silicon with a liquid, it is perhaps surprising that a gas can do the job at all. However, both xenon fluoride (XeF2) and chlorine trifluoride (ClF3) gases have been used successfully for just this purpose. Each acts as a source of fluorine atoms, which are just barely bound together into molecules and are easily rearranged around silicon atoms with which they form strong bonds, turning them into inert SiF4 gas. These
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8.2 Wet etches: acids and bases

The simplest etches use a liquid solvent that converts the material into a soluble compound or a gas. Unfortunately, most materials used in micro-devices have few soluble compounds, so some very aggressive chemicals are needed to attack them. Here is a list of some of the most commonly used ones:

  • Hydrofluoric acid (chemical formula HF) is used to convert silicon dioxide into water-soluble H2SiF6 (plus some hydrogen and water). It
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7.3.4 Physical vapour deposition (PVD), sputtering

An ion hitting a metal surface after acceleration through more than 100 V will not stick or bounce off but will burrow into the surface, splashing atoms outwards. This is known as sputtering and provides a versatile alternative to thermal evaporation for metal-vapour deposition: more controllable, with adjustable uniformity, able to cope with alloys and high-melting-point metals and suitable for production-line automation. Given these advantages, it is also worth the effort to heat the
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Part 3: 5 Self-assessment questions

SAQ 8

3.4 A note on suspense

By raising various expectations in the reader's mind, a writer can create an atmosphere of suspense – the desire to turn the page and find out what happens next. How much will the story follow the reader's expectations, how much will it confound them? In this way, sus
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1.2 Round and flat characters

What about minor or peripheral characters? How deeply do they have to be imagined?

Activity 2

Click on 'View document' below to read the section called ‘Round and flat characters’. Showing the contradictions in charac
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should:

  • have begun to identify your own strengths and weaknesses as a writer of fiction;

  • have developed a general awareness of fiction writing;

  • have developed a basic vocabulary to discuss fiction.


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8.8 Hinduism as ‘a world religion’: a more recent understanding

Traditionally, as we have seen, a Hindu was someone born to Hindu parents and into a caste with its appropriate dharma. The link between religious practice and a whole way of life bound the individual into a community from birth. Regional factors, parentage and caste affiliation largely determi
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8.6 The Dakshineswar temple

I want you now to follow a worshipper on a ‘pilgrimage in miniature’ around Dakshineswar temple on the outskirts of Calcutta. Before you read further, please study carefully the plan of Dakshineswar temple in Figure 14.

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8.5 Looking for Hinduism in Calcutta

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Unit image

Courtesy of Lanterna at Flickr

All other materials included in this unit are derived from conten
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1.5.2 What is the significance of the numbers?

In seeking the significance of these numbers, there is more information on the tablet that we have not yet taken into account, namely the text of the column headings themselves. The heading of column A is partly destroyed, but the text headings for B and C are clearer. B says something like ‘ib-sa of the front’, and C ‘ib-sa of the diagonal’, where ib-sa is a Sumerian word whose significance here is not precisely known. The geometrical
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1.5.1 Uncertain origins

The tablet is called Plimpton 322, and is described by Neugebauer (The Exact Sciences in Antiquity (Dover, 1969) p. 40) as ‘one of the most remarkable documents of Old-Babylonian mathematics’. The name arises simply from the fact that the tablet has catalogue number 322 in the George A. Plimpton collection at Columbia University, New York. Plimpton bought it in about 1923 from a Mr Banks who lived in Florida; it is not certain where he obtained it, but it may have been dug u
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