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3.6.4 Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

Vitamin B6 is composed of pyridoxine and two closely related compounds. It is found in small quantities in many foods, though it can be destroyed in the cooking process. No clear deficiency disease has been recognised in humans as being directly caused by lack of this vitamin, since it is often found in conjunction with other B vitamins and their absence has greater effects. Its main role is in the conversion of some amino acids into other ones, depending on the requirements of the
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3.6.2 Riboflavin (vitamin B2)

Riboflavin or vitamin B2, which was originally known as vitamin G, is found in a wide variety of foods, including milk and dairy products. It is more stable to heat than some of the other B vitamins, but is destroyed by exposure to sunlight. Milk in a glass bottle exposed to sun, loses 10% of its riboflavin per hour. Riboflavin plays a crucial role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins and is involved in many other metabolic reactions in the body.

Although riboflavi
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3.6.1 Thiamin (or thiamine, also known as vitamin B1)

The deficiency disease beriberi has been known for thousands of years. The name literally means ‘I can't, I can't’ in Sinhalese (a major language in Sri Lanka), and reflects the crippling effect on its victims, who suffer from neurological symptoms, including pain, fatigue and paralysis, and cardiovascular disease. The disease was most common in southeast Asia, where white or ‘polished’ rice was a major part of the diet. The main source of thiamin is in the outer layers of the grain,
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3.6 Vitamin B

Vitamin B, often called the vitamin B complex, consists of a whole range of different compounds, some of which have similar functions and work together. However, unlike the families of compounds forming vitamins E and K, the B vitamins are sufficiently different from one another to be given individual names or numbers, and to be listed separately on many food labels. Except for vitamin B12, the body can only store limited amounts of B vitamins and because they are all water-soluble
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3.5 Vitamin K

Like vitamin E, vitamin K is fat-soluble and composed of a series of related compounds. Vitamin K is widely distributed in the diet (see Table 1) and it is absorbed from the small intestine with the assistance of bile acids. Vitamin K is also manufactured by the bacteria that inhabit the human large intestine and appears to be absorbed there too. The main role of vitamin K is in blood clotting. This process requires the presence of a number of different chemicals, called clotting factors, in
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1.2.3 The transmission of genetic material

The full complement of 46 chromosomes in the human genome, the diploid number, is restored at fertilization. As Figure 3.1 shows, all the somatic cells and cells in the testes and ovaries arise from the same fertilized egg by the process of mitosis; the cells all contain copies of the same genetic material (with some exceptions).

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1.2 2 The chromosomes that constitute the human genome

Laboratory techniques are available to aid in the preparation and staining of the chromosomes from a single cell, so that they are readily distinguished and can be photographed under the microscope. During mitosis, the chromosomes become visible (because they have condensed) and it is during mitosis that chromosome number, size and shape can be most easily studied. Every species has a particular number of chromosomes, each with a characteristic size and shape. For example, chimpanzee c
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2.3.1 Perfect diamagnetism

Diamagnetism is due to currents induced in atomic orbitals by an applied magnetic field. The induced currents produce a magnetisation within the diamagnetic material that opposes the applied field, and the magnetisation disappears when the applied field is removed. However, this effect is very small: the magnetisation generally reduces the applied field by less than one part in 105 within the material. In diamagnetic material, B = μμ0H
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3.6 End of seciton exercises

Portfolio exercises

After reading Section 3 you might conduct one of the following three exercises as part of your Portfolio evidence of achievement. You may like to discuss this activity with your supervisor.

Exercise 1

Demonstrate that you can communicate in an en
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Optional reading

Debates about the relationship between science, citizenship and democracy continue to influence public policies related to science communication and public engagement in science. In part, these debates involve discussions about scientific and other ways of knowing. For an introduction to these issues, see Irwin (1999).

This premise, of exchanging information and learning from others, is also relevant to your communication with other expert scientists. As a research student you will lear
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Optional reading

If you are interested in considering the role of the internet on science communication practices, you may find the following references are of interest: Wulf (1999), Rzepa (1999) and Rowland (1999a).

So far, you have been asked to reflect on your experiences of science communication both as a receiver and as a producer. You have also considered a definition for communication in terms of different types of media, noting how this influences the context for science communication (e.g. ‘f
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3.2 What is communication?

The previous section introduced you to a number of issues where scientific, technological and mathematical knowledge played a key role in generating high-profile contemporary examples of science communication. One of the key issues that links these examples is that they have all be the subject of a considerable number of communications in a wide range of contexts, e.g. within (in the form of journal articles) and outside (in the form of news media reporting) the scientific community. The scie
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Optional reading

If you are interested in investigating the issues raised by the House of Lords Select Committee report in more detail, you will find a copy of the full report on the web at:

http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199900/ldselect/ldsctech/38/3801.htm

The following references also discuss issues related to key findings from this report: Irwin and Michael (2003, particularly pp. 19–40), Miller (2001) and Gibbons (1999).

This overall picture places demands on you as a co
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1.7.1 Research methods in context

Any established discipline has a tradition of practice. Many disciplines have established methodologies which prescribe the selection, combination and sequencing of the methods and techniques to be employed. Others select methods and techniques less prescriptively and borrow more broadly across domain boundaries. All disciplines require an appropriate application of methods, in order to ensure rigour. Hence, one key skill is the demonstration of an appropriate knowledge and competence
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1.1 About this unit

Science is all about knowledge, what we know about the material world and the Universe in which our world is just a microscopic speck. The aim of scientists is to extend the frontiers of this knowledge so that we can understand more about the physical Universe and the life within it.

Scientists acquire knowledge by engaging in four fundamentally important and connected tasks. The first is observation: they observe the natural world and the space beyond it, and both describe and r
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • explain the difference between a mineral and a rock;

  • describe the textural differences between igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks;

  • account for these differences in terms of the processes that produce these rocks;

  • classify igneous rocks according to their grain size and mineralogical composition;

  • recognise the difference between a body fossil and a trace fossil;

    <
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5.2 Neural ageing: article 1

Now read Neural Ageing Article 1: Concar, D. (2001) ‘Forever young’, New Scientist, 171, pp. 26–27.

Click to view 'Concar article'

3.1 Addiction article 1

The first selected reading provides a wide ranging review of the theories associated with addiction illustrating how the subject can be investigated at a number of different levels of analysis. The second article explores one particular level further, the pharmacology of drug addiction, and asks why specific drugs are more likely to induce addictive behaviour.


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1.5.4 Image scale

The nearest equivalent definition to angular magnification that is applicable to telescopes used for imaging onto a detector is the image scale (sometimes called the plate scale). Because of the importance of angular measures, the image scale quoted by astronomers indicates how a given angular measure on the sky corresponds to a given physical dimension in an image. The most common convention is to state how many arcseconds on the sky corresponds to 1 mm in the image.

Fort
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1.5.1 Light-gathering power

One of the key benefits of using a telescope is that it enables fainter objects to be detected than with the naked eye alone. The light-gathering power of a simple telescope used with an eyepiece is defined as

where Do is the diameter of the objec
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